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OBJECTIVE Previous studies have indicated that patients with panic disorder are more likely than normal subjects to have acute panic attacks during inhalation of CO2, but methodological objections have been raised. In this study the authors attempted to address three of these methodological problems by ensuring that raters who assessed whether panic attacks(More)
BACKGROUND To examine the relationship between respiratory regulation and childhood anxiety disorders, this study considered the relationship between anxiety disorders and symptoms during carbon dioxide (CO(2)) exposure, CO(2) sensitivity in specific childhood anxiety disorders, and the relationship between symptomatic and physiological responses to CO(2).(More)
Numerous agents with differing biological properties and central nervous system (CNS) effects can induce panic attacks in predisposed individuals. A potential explanation of this finding is that panic disorder patients are more likely to panic than normal control subjects when given a panicogen due to an excessive fear response to somatic arousal. We test(More)
Male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were subjected to the variable foraging demand (VFD) early stress paradigm as infants, MRI scans were completed an average of 4 years later, and behavioral assessments of anxiety and ex-vivo corpus callosum (CC) measurements were made when animals were fully matured. VFD rearing was associated with smaller CC size, CC(More)
On the basis of preclinical studies, we hypothesized that deficient serotonin neurotransmission may be associated with the respiratory hyperactivity and carbon dioxide sensitivity seen in panic disorder. We used the tryptophan depletion method to investigate the effects of transient reductions in serotonin on respiration in five patients with panic disorder(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate whether quetiapine, when compared with placebo, can speed the onset of action and improve the quality of response to fluoxetine treatment in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. A total of 114 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week treatment study. Patients were(More)
OBJECTIVE Respiratory abnormalities may play a central role in the pathophysiology of panic disorder. The current study was undertaken to examine the respiratory response in the largest series of subjects to date during three respiratory challenges that used improved methodology. METHOD Fifty-nine patients with DSM-III-R panic disorder and 39 normal(More)
OBJECTIVE Lack of appropriate top-down governance by frontal cortical regions over a hypersensitive amygdala-centered fear neurocircuitry has been hypothesized to be central in the pathophysiology of panic disorder. The aim of this study was to examine regional cerebral blood flow changes in response to anxiety/panic provocation in subjects with panic(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors assessed the substance and diagnostic specificity of carbon-dioxide-induced panic since, in addition to the specific biochemical effects of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), simple physiologic distress is also frequently implicated as a panicogenic factor during respiratory challenge studies with CO2 in patients with anxiety disorders. (More)
BACKGROUND According to three earlier studies, well individuals with a family history of panic disorder experience more anxiety following a single breath of 35% CO(2) than do those without such a family history. This study sought to determine whether a heightened sensitivity to CO(2) manifests specifically in respiratory changes. METHODS Subjects were(More)