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Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate(More)
BACKGROUND In the tephritids Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, the gene transformer provides the memory device for sex determination via its auto-regulation; only in females is functional Tra protein produced. To date, the isolation and characterisation of the gene transformer-2 in the tephritids has only been undertaken in Ceratitis, and it has been(More)
The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal(More)
In the eukaryotic cell, DNA compaction is achieved through its interaction with histones, constituting a nucleoprotein complex called chromatin. During metazoan evolution, the different structural and functional constraints imposed on the somatic and germinal cell lines led to a unique process of specialization of the sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs)(More)
In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively(More)
The doublesex (dsx) gene of several Anastrepha species was isolated and characterised. Its molecular organisation was found to be the same in all the species examined. This gene is composed of four exons: Exons 1 and 2 are common to both sexes, exon 3 is female specific, and exon 4 is male specific. It codes for both the female DsxF and male DsxM proteins,(More)
BACKGROUND The histone H2A family encompasses the greatest number of core histone variants of which the replacement variant H2A.Z is currently one of the most heavily studied. No clear mechanism for the functional variability that H2A.Z imparts to chromatin has yet been proposed. While most of the past studies have referred to H2A.Z generically as a single(More)
BACKGROUND Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how H2A.Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in(More)
Despite the identification of H2A.Bbd as a new vertebrate-specific replacement histone variant several years ago, and despite the many in vitro structural characterizations using reconstituted chromatin complexes consisting of this variant, the existence of H2A.Bbd in the cell and its location has remained elusive. Here, we report that the native form of(More)
Sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs) can be grouped into three main categories: histone (H) type, protamine (P) type, and protamine-like (PL) type. Protamine-like SNBPs represent the most structurally heterogeneous group, consisting of basic proteins which are rich in both lysine and arginine amino acids. The PL proteins replace most of the histones during(More)