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Optimal T-cell activation and T-cell expansion require triggering by T-cell antigen receptors and co-stimulatory signals provided by accessory cells. A major co-stimulatory pathway involves crosslinking the CD28 molecule on T cells by its ligands CD80 or CD86 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. But recent studies on CD28-deficient mice have indicated(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA) is a biochemically fully defined glycoprotein, representing the main allergen of bee venom. We have established CD4+ T cell clones specific to PLA from subjects allergic and nonallergic to bee sting. By screening the epitope specificity of these clones with 62 synthetic overlapping dodecapeptides representing the PLA molecule, two(More)
Succinate acts as an extracellular mediator signaling through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR91. Here we show that dendritic cells had high expression of GPR91. In these cells, succinate triggered intracellular calcium mobilization, induced migratory responses and acted in synergy with Toll-like receptor ligands for the production of proinflammatory(More)
Since the first description of the subpopulations of TH1 and TH2 cells, insights into the development and control of these cells as two polarized and physiologically balanced subsets have been generated. In particular, implications of the TH1-TH2 concept for TH cell-mediated skin disorders have been discovered. This article will review the basic factors(More)
Succinate is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle as well as an extracellular circulating molecule, whose receptor, G protein-coupled receptor-91 (GPR91), was recently identified and characterized in several tissues, including heart. Because some pathological conditions such as ischemia increase succinate blood levels, we investigated the role of this(More)
We have previously established that eosinophils studied ex vivo from the sputum of asthmatics express intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and HLA-DR, whereas peripheral blood eosinophils do not express these surface proteins. On incubation of highly purified (greater than 99.5% pure) blood eosinophils from normal subjects with T cell supernatants,(More)
BACKGROUND Two hybridomas, which secrete human monoclonal antibodies of IgG4 isotype specific for the main bee venom antigen/allergen phospholipase A2, were generated. The antigenic determinants recognized by these antibodies were mapped and compared with the binding sites of murine monoclonal and human polyclonal antibodies raised against the same antigen.(More)
We investigated the mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of succinate. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from male Wistar rats and C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or GPR91(-/-) mice. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was measured colorimetrically whereas 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (stable product of prostacyclin) was measured by enzyme(More)
CCL18 is a human chemokine secreted by monocytes and dendritic cells. The receptor for CCL18 is not yet known and the functions of this chemokine on immune cells are not fully elucidated. In this study, we describe that CCL18 is present in skin biopsies of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients but not in normal or psoriatic skin. CCL18 was specifically expressed(More)
Allergen-specific Th2 cells accumulate at high frequencies in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), where they contribute to the induction and maintenance of the lesions that are characteristic for the disease. Attenuation of these lesions in response to successful therapy is associated with a reduction in IL-4-producing Th2 cells and the(More)