José M. Álvarez-Castro

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Interaction between genes, or epistasis, is found to be common and it is a key concept for understanding adaptation and evolution of natural populations, response to selection in breeding programs, and determination of complex disease. Currently, two independent classes of models are used to study epistasis. Statistical models focus on maintaining desired(More)
We investigate the multilinear epistatic model under mutation-limited directional selection. We confirm previous results that only directional epistasis, in which genes on average reinforce or diminish each other's effects, contribute to the initial evolution of mutational effects. Thus, either canalization or decanalization can occur under directional(More)
Although the genotype-phenotype map plays a central role both in Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics, the formalization of a completely general and satisfactory model of genetic effects, particularly accounting for epistasis, remains a theoretical challenge. Here, we use a two-locus genetic system in simulated populations with epistasis to show the(More)
We study a two-locus model of a quantitative trait with a continuum-of alleles and multilinear epistasis that evolves under mutation, selection, and genetic drift. We derive analytical results based on the so-called House of Gauss approximation for the genetic variance, the mean phenotype, and the mutational variance in the balance of the evolutionary(More)
Quantitative genetics stems from the theoretical models of genetic effects, which are re-parameterizations of the genotypic values into parameters of biological (genetic) relevance. Different formulations of genetic effects are adequate to address different subjects. We thus need to generalize and unify them under a common framework for enabling researchers(More)
BACKGROUND It has been shown that if genetic relationships among individuals are not taken into account for genome wide association studies, this may lead to false positives. To address this problem, we used Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression and principal component stratification analyses. To account for linkage disequilibrium(More)
Models of genetic effects integrate the action of genes, regulatory regions and interactions among alleles across the genome. Such theoretical frameworks are critical for applied studies in at least two ways. First, discovering genetic networks with specific effects underlying traits in populations requires the development of models that implement those(More)
DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) reestablishes methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites generated during DNA replication in mammalian cells. Two subdomains, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding domain (PBD) and the targeting sequence (TS) domain, target Dnmt1 to the replication sites in S phase. We aimed to dissect the details of the cell(More)
Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is a necessary step to understand phenotypic changes in natural, experimental and domestic populations. However, this is still a major challenge for modern genetics, since the estimation of genetic effects tends to be complicated by genetic interactions, which lead to changes in the effect of allelic(More)
Using a multilinear model of epistasis we explore the evolution of canalization (reduced mutational effects) and evolvability (levels of additive genetic variance) under different forms of stabilizing and fluctuating selection. We show that the total selection acting on an allele can be divided into a component deriving from adaptation of the trait mean, a(More)