José Luis Stephano

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In marine invertebrates, as in most other organisms, normal development requires that only one sperm nucleus joins with the egg nucleus at fertilization. The principal mechanisms employed are (1) prevention of sperm-egg plasma membrane fusion and (2) modifications of the egg extracellular coat to prevent sperm binding and/or penetration. In a third(More)
The intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) increase at fertilization of the marine worm Urechis caupo (Echiura) was studied with conventional and confocal epifluorescence microscopy in oocytes microinjected with calcium green dextran or dually labeled with the calcium-insensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine dextran. Calcium green fluorescence was also measured with a(More)
Although MAP kinase is an important regulatory enzyme in many somatic cells, almost nothing is known about its functions during meiosis, except in frog and mouse oocytes. We investigated MAPK activation and function in oocytes of the marine worm Urechis caupo that are fertilized at meiotic prophase. Activity was first detected at 4-6 min after fertilization(More)
The earliest known response of eggs to sperm in many species is a change in egg membrane potential. However, for no species is it known what components of the sperm cause the opening of the egg plasma membrane channels. Protein isolated from sperm acrosomal granules of the marine worm Urechis caused electrical responses in oocytes with the same form,(More)
Spawning was induced in both male and female Pismo clams by injecting 0.4 ml of 5 mM serotonin into the gonad. Spawned oocytes had already matured to metaphase I of meiosis or were undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown at the time of release. Prophase-arrested oocytes scraped from the ovaries of uninjected clams were induced to undergo germinal vesicle(More)
When acetic acid-urea polyacrylamide gels with or without Triton X-100 were immersed in 0.1 M Na picrate, pH 7, to which 1/4 vol Coomassie blue staining solution (0.2% in 45% methanol, 10% acetic acid, 45% water) was added, proteins stained rapidly (within a few minutes in gels without Triton and within an hour in gels with Triton) with little or no(More)
A peptide (P23) isolated from sperm acrosomal protein initiates development in eggs of the marine worm Urechis caupo (Echiura). However, in these earlier experiments the eggs were exposed continuously to P23 and did not cleave unless they were provided with a sperm centrosome. The present study reports that parthenogenetic cleavage can be induced when the(More)
How sperm initiate egg development is being investigated with gametes of the marine worm Urechis. Sperm acrosomal protein, previously shown to activate eggs (Gould et al., 1986, Dev. Biol. 117, 306-318; Gould and Stephano, 1987, Science 235, 1654-1656), was enzymatically cleaved into soluble peptide fragments. When this mixture was added to eggs they(More)
In a previous study involving the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation during fertilization of the marine worm Urechis caupo, we found that PD98059, but not U0126, caused multiple sperm penetrations in oocytes (Gould and Stephano, 1999, Dev. Biol. 216, 348-358). Since these oocytes are protected against polyspermy by a positive(More)
We reported previously that inhibition of MAP kinase during meiosis in Urechis caupo eggs caused premature sperm aster formation and we reviewed indirect evidence that the suppression of sperm asters by MAPK during meiosis might be a universal mechanism (M. C. Gould and J. L. Stephano, 1999, Dev. Biol. 216, 348-358). We tested this proposition with oyster(More)