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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Taiuiá or tayuya (Cayaponia tayuya, Cucurbitaceae) is a climbing, lignified plant with a large swollen root that has traditionally been used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic agent in the folk medicine of Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. THE AIM OF THE STUDY We have assayed the pharmacological properties of a flavonoid(More)
A new isoflavone, griffonianone D (1), and the previously known compounds durmillone and odorantin were isolated from a chloroform extract of the root bark of Millettia griffoniana. The structure of 1 was established as (7E)-(6",7"-dihydroxy-3",7"-dimethyloct-2"-enyl)oxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone on the basis of its spectral data. The chloroform extract of the(More)
Oleuropein, the major secoiridoid in olive tree leaves, possesses a wide range of health promoting properties. It has recently been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. We have evaluated the effect of oleuropein on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice in order to provide insight into its mechanisms of action. Oral(More)
This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cucurbitacin R on an experimental model of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The treatment of arthritic rats with cucurbitacin R (1 mg/kg p.o. daily) modified the evolution of the clinical symptoms, whereas the histopathology of paws demonstrated a reduction in the signs of arthritis. Compared with(More)
From the galls of Pistacia terebinthus we obtained an extract that proved to be effective against chronic and acute inflammation. Now we report on the isolation and identification of three triterpenes: two tirucallane-type lanostanoids and one oleanane, which we have identified as masticadienonic acid (1), masticadienolic acid (2), and morolic acid (3),(More)
The caffeoyl conjugates of prenylhydroquinone glucoside and of quinic acid, either in the carboxyl-free or carboxymethyl forms, isolated from Phagnalon rupestre (Asteraceae), showed inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe 2+/ascorbate and by CCl4/NADPH in rat liver microsomes, with IC50 values ranging from 3 to 11 microM. After having(More)
The dichloromethane extract and pomolic acid ( 5) obtained from leaves of Cecropia pachystachya both reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Interestingly, while the triterpenoid inhibited the in vivo production of interleukin-1beta by 39 %, it had no effect on tumour necrosis factor-alpha production. We also demonstrated that both the(More)
Two prenylated flavanones isolated from Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (sigmoidin A and sigmoidin B) were studied for their ability to inhibit the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, the compounds were studied in two experimental models of inflammation induced in mouse ears by 12-(More)