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The concept of defense relates to the idea that organisms react physiologically to the presence of danger or threat in order to protect themselves from potential injury or death. This article reviews the literature on cardiac defense, a specific defense reaction that has a long tradition in psychophysiological research. The review begins with a brief(More)
Worry has been defined as a chain of thoughts and images that promote mental attempts to avoid anticipation of potential threats. From this perspective worry can be conceptualized as a state of anticipatory anxiety or non-cued fear reaction. The present study examines high and low chronic worriers during cued and non-cued defense reaction paradigms and(More)
The International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS): Spanish Norms. The Spanish norms for the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) are reported. The IADS is a standardized set of 110 digitalized sounds which are both reliable and valid for the experimental study of emotional processes. The construction of the IADS is based on Peter J. Lang's(More)
Wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces by oily fluids were investigated in terms of the stability of the liquid film formed between an air bubble and the solid surface. With the objective of understanding how molecules with low polarity but relatively complex molecular structure behave at the solid/liquid interface, three liquid triglycerides with(More)
The present study investigated the modulation of cardiac defense by presenting emotional pictures under both effective and non-effective masking procedures. The aim was to test Ohman's model of pre-attentive processing of fear. Participants were 48 women volunteers with intense fear of spiders. The stimulus to elicit cardiac defense was a white noise of 105(More)
We examined the habituation and recovery of two protective reflexes, cardiac defense and eye-blink startle, simultaneously elicited by a white noise of 500ms as a function of the time interval between stimulus presentations. Participants were 90 volunteers (54 women) randomly distributed into 6 inter-trial interval (ITI) conditions. They all received three(More)
This study examines similarities and differences in fear potentiation between two protective reflexes: cardiac defense and eyeblink startle. Women reporting intense fear of animals but low fear of blood or intense fear of blood but low fear of animals viewed pictures depicting blood or the feared animal for 6 s in 2 separate trials in counterbalanced order.(More)
The present study examined the emotional reactivity to erotic and food images of women with and without bulimia nervosa using the picture-viewing paradigm. A non-clinical student sample made up of 48 women, 24 diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and 24 healthy controls, aged between 18 and 27 years (M=21.79), participated in the study. Diagnosis was based on(More)
In this work the liquid/vapour and the solid/liquid interfaces of a series of ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethyl sulfate, [EMPy][EtSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, [EMIM][EtSO4], 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C2OHMIM][BF4], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4], and(More)
OBJETIVES Despite the increasing interest in mindfulness, the basic components and action mechanisms of mindfulness remain controversial. The present study aims at testing the specific contribution of two components of mindfulness -attention to cognitive experience (metacognition) and awareness of interoceptive sensations (metainteroception)- in the(More)