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The concept of defense relates to the idea that organisms react physiologically to the presence of danger or threat in order to protect themselves from potential injury or death. This article reviews the literature on cardiac defense, a specific defense reaction that has a long tradition in psychophysiological research. The review begins with a brief(More)
Worry has been defined as a chain of thoughts and images that promote mental attempts to avoid anticipation of potential threats. From this perspective worry can be conceptualized as a state of anticipatory anxiety or non-cued fear reaction. The present study examines high and low chronic worriers during cued and non-cued defense reaction paradigms and(More)
The present study investigated the modulation of cardiac defense by presenting emotional pictures under both effective and non-effective masking procedures. The aim was to test Ohman's model of pre-attentive processing of fear. Participants were 48 women volunteers with intense fear of spiders. The stimulus to elicit cardiac defense was a white noise of 105(More)
We examined the habituation and recovery of two protective reflexes, cardiac defense and eye-blink startle, simultaneously elicited by a white noise of 500ms as a function of the time interval between stimulus presentations. Participants were 90 volunteers (54 women) randomly distributed into 6 inter-trial interval (ITI) conditions. They all received three(More)
This study examines similarities and differences in fear potentiation between two protective reflexes: cardiac defense and eyeblink startle. Women reporting intense fear of animals but low fear of blood or intense fear of blood but low fear of animals viewed pictures depicting blood or the feared animal for 6 s in 2 separate trials in counterbalanced order.(More)
The International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS): Spanish Norms. The Spanish norms for the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) are reported. The IADS is a standardized set of 110 digitalized sounds which are both reliable and valid for the experimental study of emotional processes. The construction of the IADS is based on Peter J. Lang's(More)
The present study examined the emotional reactivity to erotic and food images of women with and without bulimia nervosa using the picture-viewing paradigm. A non-clinical student sample made up of 48 women, 24 diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and 24 healthy controls, aged between 18 and 27 years (M=21.79), participated in the study. Diagnosis was based on(More)
OBJETIVES Despite the increasing interest in mindfulness, the basic components and action mechanisms of mindfulness remain controversial. The present study aims at testing the specific contribution of two components of mindfulness -attention to cognitive experience (metacognition) and awareness of interoceptive sensations (metainteroception)- in the(More)
The preejection period (PEP) is an index of left ventricle contractility widely used in psychophysiological research. Its computation requires detecting the moment when the aortic valve opens, which coincides with the B point in the first derivative of impedance cardiogram (ICG). Although this operation has been traditionally made via visual inspection,(More)
This study aimed at replicating and extending previous results on the association between baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) and cognitive performance. Thirty men and 31 women performed an arithmetic task. After adjusting for numerical aptitude and effort, no predictors of performance were found in men. In women, the relationships between BRS and(More)