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Cell corpses generated during CNS development are eliminated through phagocytosis performed by a variety of cells, including mesenchyme-derived macrophages and microglia, or glial cells originating in the neurogenic ectoderm. Mounting evidence indicates that in different species, phagocytes not only clear cell corpses but also engulf still-living neural(More)
We compared chronotopographical patterns of distribution of naturally occurring neuronal death in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) with patterns of tangential and radial migration of microglial precursors during quail retinal development. Apoptotic cells were identified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated(More)
The origin, migration, and differentiation of microglial precursors in the avascular quail retina during embryonic and posthatching development were examined in this study. Microglial precursors and developing microglia were immunocytochemically labeled with QH1 antibody in retinal whole mounts and sections. The retina was free of QH1+ macrophages at(More)
The present study showed that the HIS-C7 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the chick form of CD45, is a specific marker for macrophages/microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system (CNS). HIS-C7-positive cells were characterized according to their morphological features and chronotopographical distribution patterns within(More)
Long distance migration of microglial precursors within the central nervous system is essential for microglial colonization of the nervous parenchyma. We studied morphological features of ameboid microglial cells migrating tangentially in the developing quail retina to shed light on the mechanism of migration and migratory behavior of microglial precursors.(More)
Sheets containing the inner limiting membrane covered by a carpet of Müller cell endfeet were used to show that ameboid microglial cells migrating tangentially in the vitreal part of the developing retina of quail embryos underwent mitosis. Double labeling with anti-beta-tubulin/QH1 or Hoechst 33342/QH1 revealed that some migroglial cells with morphological(More)
Microglial cells within the developing central nervous system (CNS) originate from mesodermic precursors of hematopoietic lineage that enter the nervous parenchyma from the meninges, ventricular space and/or blood stream. Once in the nervous parenchyma, microglial cells increase in number and disperse throughout the CNS; these cells finally differentiate to(More)
Central-to-peripheral migration of QH1-positive microglial precursors occurs in the vitrealmost part of the developing quail retina. This study shows that some QH1-positive ameboid cells with morphological features of migrating cells are already present in the margin of the retina before microglial precursors migrating centrally to peripherally arrive in(More)
Macrophage/microglial cells in the mouse retina during embryonic and postnatal development were studied by immunocytochemistry with Iba1, F4/80, anti-CD45, and anti-CD68 antibodies and by tomato lectin histochemistry. These cells were already present in the retina of embryos aged 11.5 days (E11.5) in association with cell death. At E12.5 some(More)
Microglia, the brain's innate immune cell type, are cells of mesodermal origin that populate the central nervous system (CNS) during development. Undifferentiated microglia, also called ameboid microglia, have the ability to proliferate, phagocytose apoptotic cells and migrate long distances toward their final destinations throughout all CNS regions, where(More)