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The penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC, penDE) of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 were located in a 106.5-kb DNA region that is amplified in tandem repeats (five or six copies) linked by conserved TTTACA sequences. The wild-type strains P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951 and Penicillium notatum ATCC 9478 (Fleming's isolate) contain a single copy of the(More)
The isopenicillin-N acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum catalyzes the conversion of the biosynthetic intermediate isopenicillin N to the hydrophobic penicillins. The isopenicillin-N acyltransferase copurified with the acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase activity which transfers an acyl residue from acyl-CoA derivatives (e.g.(More)
The acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 was purified to homogeneity, as concluded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 30,000 +/- 1,000 and a pI of about 5.5. The optimal pH and(More)
A gene (ips) encoding the isopenicillin N synthase of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 was cloned in a 3.9 kb SalI fragment using a probe corresponding to the aminoterminal end of the enzyme. The SalI fragment was trimmed down to a 1.3 kb NcoI-BglII fragment that contained an open reading frame of 996 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 331 amino acids(More)
The conversion of deacetylcephalosporin C to cephalosporin C is inefficient in most Acremonium chrysogenum strains. The cefG gene, which encodes deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase, is expressed very poorly in A. chrysogenum as compared to other genes of the cephalosporin pathway. Introduction of additional copies of the cefG gene with its native(More)
Penicillium chrysogenum DNA fragments cloned in EMBL3 or cosmid vectors from the upstream region of the pcbC-penDE cluster carry a gene (pcbAB) that complemented the deficiency of alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase of mutants npe5 and npe10, and restored penicillin production to mutant npe5. A protein of about 250 kDa was observed in sodium(More)
We cloned the carB and carRA genes involved in beta-carotene biosynthesis from overproducing and wild-type strains of Blakeslea trispora. The carB gene has a length of 1,955 bp, including two introns of 141 and 68 bp, and encodes a protein of 66.4 kDa with phytoene dehydrogenase activity. The carRA gene contains 1,894 bp, with a single intron of 70 bp, and(More)
Two genes, pcbC and penDE (also named ips and aat, respectively) encoding the enzymes isopenicillin N synthase and acyl-CoA:6-amino penicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase, which are involved in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum, were cloned. Both genes are clustered together in a 5.1 kb SalI DNA fragment and are separated by(More)
The tlrB gene from Streptomyces fradiae has been cloned and used to construct bifunctional Streptomyces-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors carrying the antibiotic resistance genes to kanamycin-neomycin, thiostrepton and tylosin as selection markers. In the same way, the tlrB gene was subcloned in plasmids including the apramycin resistance gene and the oriT(More)
The conversion of beta-carotene into xanthophylls is a subject of great scientific and industrial interest. We cloned the crtS gene involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis from two astaxanthin producing strains of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous: VKPM Y2410, an astaxanthin overproducing strain, and the wild type ATCC 24203. In both cases, the ORF has a length of(More)