José Luís Santos

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A model for random molecular evolution based on recurrent mutation is proposed. Recurrent mutation replaces completely any original base in a nucleotidic site. This occurs if more than four times the number of reproductive cycles equal to the reciprocal of the mutation rate happen; no matter the population size, the number of nucleotides a genome has, or(More)
In this work an all-optical hot-wire flowmeter based on a silver coated fiber combining a long period grating and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structure is proposed. Light from a pump laser at 1480  nm propagating down the fiber is coupled by the long period grating into the fiber cladding and is absorbed by the silver coating deposited on the fiber surface(More)
A new concept to measure rotation angles based on a fiber-optic modal Mach-Zehnder interferometer is demonstrated by using a nonadiabatic taper cascaded with a long-period fiber grating. Information about the magnitude of the rotation angle can be obtained from the measurement of the interference pattern visibility, and under certain conditions it is also(More)
A Sagnac interferometer with a section of a polarization maintaining side-hole fiber for multiparameter measurement is proposed. The sensor was experimentally demonstrated to be sensitive to torsion, temperature, and longitudinal strain, simultaneously. The birefringence in the investigated side-hole fiber is induced simultaneously by the elliptical shape(More)
Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantumdots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties thatmake them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence basedbioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application ofquantum dots as(More)
An amplitude-phase-conversion self-referencing technique for intensity-modulated photonic sensors that uses two different-wavelength fiber Bragg gratings is presented. With this technique, the system response has been demonstrated to be almost unafffected by network power variations as high as 90% of the total power launched by the source. We prove the(More)
A curvature sensor based on a highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) photonic crystal fiber inserted into a Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated. For this purpose, a novel Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber was designed and fabricated. Half of the microstructured region of the photonic crystal fiber was composed by large diameter holes, while the other half contained small(More)
In this work, sensitivity to strain and temperature of a sensor relying on modal interferometry in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers is studied. The sensing structure is simply a piece of hollow-core fiber connected in both ends to standard single mode fiber. An interference pattern that is associated to the interference of light that propagates in the(More)
A sensing head based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for in-reflection measurement of micro-displacements is presented. The sensing structure takes advantage of the multimodal behavior of a short segment of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber in-reflection, being spliced to a single mode fiber at its other end. A modal interferometer is obtained(More)
A large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber-based sensing structure is described, which is sensitive to refractive index. The sensing head is based on multimodal interference, and relies on a single-mode/large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber (PCF)/single-mode fiber configuration. Using two distinct large-core air-clad PCF geometries-one for refractive(More)