José Guadalupe Raya

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The statistical properties of background noise such as its standard deviation and mean value are frequently used to estimate the original noise level of the acquired data. This requires the knowledge of the statistical intensity distribution of the background signal, that is, the probability density of the occurrence of a certain signal intensity. The(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the validity of different approaches to determine the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in MRI experiments with multi-element surface coils, parallel imaging, and different reconstruction filters. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four different approaches of SNR calculation were compared in phantom measurements and in vivo based on: 1) the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate technical feasibility, test-retest reproducibility, and the ability to differentiate healthy subjects from subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) with diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging parameters and T2 relaxation time. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. All subjects(More)
T2 relaxation time is a promising MRI parameter for the detection of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis. However, the accuracy and precision of the measured T2 may be substantially impaired by the low signal-to-noise ratio of images available from clinical examinations. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy and precision of the(More)
The well-known noise distributions of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data (Rayleigh, Rician, or non-central chi-distribution) describe the probability density of real-valued (i.e., floating-point) signal intensities. MR image data, however, is typically quantized to integers before visualization or archiving. Depending on the scaling factors applied(More)
Some afferent fibers from the pudendal nerve of the female cat were stimulated by pressing on the perineal skin, the vagina or the uterine cervix. Three different types of skin mechanoreceptors were found: (1) with low threshold (< 20 mg) and slow-adapting discharges; (2) with high threshold (0.1-0.5 g) and slow-adapting discharges; and (3) with low(More)
The question of whether skin receptors might help in the perception of muscle contraction and body movement has not been settled. The present study gives direct evidence of skin receptor firing in close coincidence with the contraction of the vaginal and anal sphincters. The distal stump of the sectioned motor pudendal nerve was stimulated. Single shocks(More)
Radial spin-echo diffusion imaging allows motion-robust imaging of tissues with very low T2 values like articular cartilage with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, in vivo measurements are challenging, due to the significantly slower data acquisition speed of spin-echo sequences and the less efficient k-space coverage of(More)
PURPOSE We used a combined intravoxel incoherent motion-diffusion tensor imaging (IVIM-DTI) methodology to distinguish structural from flow effects on renal diffusion anisotropy. METHODS Eight volunteers were examined with IVIM-DTI at 3T with 20 diffusion directions and 10 b-values. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) from DTI analysis(More)
In decerebrate cats, controlled mechanical stimulation of the perivulvar skin, the vaginal wall or the cervix uteri induced visible hind limb extension. Pressing on the cervix uteri produced the greater response. To quantify these responses, the EMG activity and the tension developed by the normally inserted triceps surae muscles were recorded. The activity(More)