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BACKGROUND Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuro-endocrine tumours that occur sporadically and in several hereditary tumour syndromes, including the phaeochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndrome. This syndrome is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), C (SDHC), or D (SDHD) genes. Clinically, the(More)
CONTEXT Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndrome is caused by mutations in SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and in SDHAF2, required for flavination of SDHA. A recent report described a patient with an abdominal paraganglioma, immunohistochemically negative for SDHA, and identified a causal germline mutation in SDHA.(More)
Mutations in the tumor suppressor genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD (or collectively SDHx) cause the inherited paraganglioma syndromes, characterized by pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. However, other tumors have been associated with SDHx mutations, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) specifically in the context of Carney-Stratakis syndrome.(More)
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) harbor oncogenic mutations in KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. However, a small subset of GISTs lacks such mutations and is termed 'wild-type GISTs'. Germline mutation in any of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) predisposes individuals to hereditary paragangliomas and(More)
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Related tumors that arise from the paraganglia outside the adrenal medulla are called paragangliomas (PGLs). PCC/PGLs are usually benign, but approximately 17% of these tumors are malignant, as defined by the development of metastases. Currently, there(More)
Carney-Stratakis syndrome, an inherited condition predisposing affected individuals to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and paraganglioma, is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C, or D, leading to dysfunction of complex II of the electron transport chain. We evaluated the role of defective cellular respiration in(More)
BACKGROUND Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation carriers, assess the clinical genetic significance of SDHAF2,(More)
OBJECTIVE Although the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-related tumor spectrum has been recently expanded, there are only rare reports of non-pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors in SDHx-mutated patients. Therefore, questions still remain unresolved concerning the aforementioned tumors with regard to their pathogenesis, clinicopathological phenotype, and even(More)
CONTEXT Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that occur sporadically and in the context of inherited tumor syndromes including hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). The paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome is caused by germline-inactivating mutations in the mitochondrial(More)
PURPOSE Paragangliomas of the head and neck are neuroendocrine tumors and are associated with germ line mutations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle-related genes SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2. Hypoxia is important in most solid tumors, and was directly implicated in tumorigenesis over 40 years ago when it was shown that dwelling at high altitudes increases the(More)