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Several ion channels are thought to be directly modulated by nitric oxide (NO), but the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. Here we show that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-associated ion channel was modulated not only by exogenous NO but also by endogenous NO. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a critical cysteine residue (Cys 399) on the NR2A(More)
Quantitative blot immunolabeling techniques were used to determine the concentrations of ERK1 (M(r) 44 kDa) and ERK2 (M(r) 42 kDa), the two major extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, in different regions of rat brain. The aggregate ERK concentrations (ERK1 and ERK2) were relatively high in each of the brain regions studied, ranging from(More)
We have demonstrated previously that chronic administration of morphine, cocaine, or ethanol produces some common biochemical adaptations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), components of the mesolimbic dopamine system implicated in the reinforcing and locomotor activating properties of these drugs of abuse. Because this neural(More)
In previous studies, we have demonstrated that chronic administration of morphine or cocaine produces some common biochemical adaptations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), components of the mesolimbic dopamine system implicated in the reinforcing actions of these and other drugs of abuse. Since this neural pathway is also(More)
Based on the established role of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) and beta-arrestin in the desensitization of several G protein-coupled receptors, we investigated the effect of chronic morphine administration on beta ARK and beta-arrestin levels in selected brain areas. Levels of beta ARK were measured by blot immunolabeling analysis using(More)
Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was(More)
AIM The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative assessment of female rat sexual behaviors after acute exposure to the A-ring reduced testosterone metabolite, androstanediol (3α-Diol), through the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Quantitative analyses of female rat sexual behaviors and assessment of protein levels for the(More)
PURPOSE To examine the relationship between seizures and excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) activity and whether up-regulation of EAAT activity alters epileptogenicity. METHODS In this study, we exposed rat hippocampal slices to different convulsants before measuring EAAT activity. Rats were exposed to the EAAT inhibitor pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic(More)
Cocaine sensitization results in the development of increased locomotion and stereotypy. It is accompanied by changes in glutamatergic trasmission that appear to be region-specific. The purpose of this article was to determine the effect(s) of cocaine and prazosin plus cocaine treatments on ionotropic glutamate receptors in rat cerebral cortex (CTX) and(More)
Extracts of Valeriana officinalis have been used in folkloric medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer and anticonvulsant effects, and may interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or benzodiazepine sites. At low concentrations, valerian extracts enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding (EC50 4.13 x 10(-10) mg/ml). However, this increased(More)