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An HIV-1 vaccine offers the best long-term hope to control the AIDS pandemic, especially in less-developed countries. To ensure its future availability we need to increase our research efforts today, including clinical trials. Although small-scale clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccines have been underway since 1987, the first phase III efficacy trials started(More)
The objective of this study was to estimate the global distribution and regional spread of different HIV-1 genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in the year 2000. These estimates were made based on data derived from global HIV/AIDS surveillance and molecular virology studies. HIV-1 incidence during the year 2000 was estimated in defined(More)
Twenty years after its recognition, HIV/AIDS has become the most important infectious disease globally and the leading cause of death in Africa. A preventive vaccine represents the best long-term hope for its control. The development of such a vaccine, however, has encountered a number of scientific challenges, including the lack of information on immune(More)
A new collaborative model of research is needed to increase resources, to prioritize the R (ii) to increase the pace, reduce the overlap, and more systematically explore the elements of and delivery systems for vaccines; (iii) to use common standards for the prompt comparative testing of vaccine candidates; (iv) to expand resources for manufacturing vaccine(More)
Once an effective HIV vaccine is discovered, a major challenge will be to ensure its world wide access. A preventive vaccine with low or moderate efficacy (30-50%) could be a valuable prevention tool, especially if targeted to populations at higher risk of HIV infection. High efficacy vaccines (80-90%) could be used in larger segments of the population.(More)
Soon after HIV was discovered as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, there was an expectation that a preventive vaccine would be rapidly developed. In trying to achieve that goal, three successive scientific paradigms have been explored: induction of neutralizing antibodies, induction of cell mediated immunity, and exploration of combination approaches and(More)
The objective of this study was to analyze the feasibility and safety of transradial catheterization in patients with remote surgical cardiac revascularization. Selective catheterization of coronary bypass grafts might be more difficult and time-consuming from the radial artery as compared to the femoral route. This special patient subset has been either(More)
  • José Esparza
  • 2005
AIDS, which twenty-five years ago no one even knew it existed, has become the most serious infectious disease worldwide. The development of an HIV vaccine is one of the most difficult challenges that modern biomedical science is confronting. To address this challenge, scientists may need to organize themselves in a more intense, targeted, and collaborative(More)
From May through August 1995, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among injecting drug users (IDUs) drawn from 15 drug treatment clinics in Bangkok and who were not known to be HIV-seropositive, to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes B and E and related risk behaviors, and to offer enrollment in a prospective cohort study. IDUs who voluntarily(More)