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An HIV-1 vaccine offers the best long-term hope to control the AIDS pandemic, especially in less-developed countries. To ensure its future availability we need to increase our research efforts today, including clinical trials. Although small-scale clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccines have been underway since 1987, the first phase III efficacy trials started(More)
Policy Forum T he Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise convened a two-day workshop in May of 2007 to discuss humoral immune responses to HIV and approaches to design vaccines that induce viral neutralizing and other potentially protective antibody responses. The goals of this workshop were to identify key scientific issues, gaps, and opportunities that have(More)
A new collaborative model of research is needed to increase resources, to prioritize the R (ii) to increase the pace, reduce the overlap, and more systematically explore the elements of and delivery systems for vaccines; (iii) to use common standards for the prompt comparative testing of vaccine candidates; (iv) to expand resources for manufacturing vaccine(More)
The increasing complexity of biomedical research is leading to the exploration of new models for large-scale collaborative research. This Big Science approach, however, has created anxieties and potential tensions between investigator-driven research, and research guided by a more organized, collaborative effort. Another potential tension exists between(More)
  • J Esparza
  • 2001
The best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. The first phase I trial of an HIV vaccine was conducted in 1987. Subsequently, more than 30 candidate(More)
The bulk of current HIV vaccine research is conducted within the infectious disease paradigm that has been very successful in developing vaccines against many other viral diseases. Different HIV vaccine concepts, based on the induction of neutralizing antibodies and/or cell mediated immunity, have been developed and clinically tested over the last 30 years,(More)
When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in(More)