José Esparza

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The objective of this study was to estimate the global distribution and regional spread of different HIV-1 genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in the year 2000. These estimates were made based on data derived from global HIV/AIDS surveillance and molecular virology studies. HIV-1 incidence during the year 2000 was estimated in defined(More)
Twenty years after its recognition, HIV/AIDS has become the most important infectious disease globally and the leading cause of death in Africa. A preventive vaccine represents the best long-term hope for its control. The development of such a vaccine, however, has encountered a number of scientific challenges, including the lack of information on immune(More)
OBJECTIVE Accurate estimates of HIV incidence that reflect the effect of non-vaccine interventions (education, counselling, condom promotion, and possibly sexually transmitted disease treatment) and that may be provided in a Phase III vaccine efficacy trial, are needed so that vaccine trial population sample sizes can be accurately determined. In order to(More)
An HIV-1 vaccine offers the best long-term hope to control the AIDS pandemic, especially in less-developed countries. To ensure its future availability we need to increase our research efforts today, including clinical trials. Although small-scale clinical trials of HIV-1 vaccines have been underway since 1987, the first phase III efficacy trials started(More)
The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise convened a two-day workshop in May of 2007 to discuss humoral immune responses to HIV and approaches to design vaccines that induce viral neutralizing and other potentially protective antibody responses. The goals of this workshop were to identify key scientific issues, gaps, and opportunities that have emerged since the(More)
  • José Esparza
  • International microbiology : the official journal…
  • 2005
AIDS, which twenty-five years ago no one even knew it existed, has become the most serious infectious disease worldwide. The development of an HIV vaccine is one of the most difficult challenges that modern biomedical science is confronting. To address this challenge, scientists may need to organize themselves in a more intense, targeted, and collaborative(More)
From May through August 1995, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among injecting drug users (IDUs) drawn from 15 drug treatment clinics in Bangkok and who were not known to be HIV-seropositive, to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes B and E and related risk behaviors, and to offer enrollment in a prospective cohort study. IDUs who voluntarily(More)
In 1993 an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among 39 patients at 2 renal dialysis centers in Egypt. The centers, private center A (PCA) and university center A (UCA) were visited, HIV-infected patients were interviewed, seroconversion rates at UCA were calculated, and relatedness of HIV strains was determined by sequence(More)