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Microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs) are efficacious chemotherapeutic drugs widely used for the treatment of cancer. Despite the importance of MSAs for medical applications and basic research, their molecular mechanisms of action on tubulin and microtubules remain elusive. We determined high-resolution crystal structures of αβ-tubulin in complex with two(More)
The interactions of epothilone analogs with the paclitaxel binding site of microtubules were studied. The influence of chemical modifications in the C15 side chain and in C12 on binding affinity and microtubule elongation was characterized. Modifications favorable for binding affinity are (1). a thiomethyl group at C21 of the thiazole side chain, (2). a(More)
The orientational behavior of microtubules assembled in strong magnetic fields has been studied. It is shown that when microtubules are assembled in a magnetic field, they align with their long axis parallel to the magnetic field. The effect of several parameters known to affect the microtubule assembly are investigated with respect to their effect on the(More)
The large and diverse genus Penstemon (ca. 271 species) is endemic to North America and has been divided into six subgenera primarily based on anther dehiscence patterns. Species of Penstemon are known to be pollinated by a variety of insects (hymenopterans, lepidopterans, dipterans) and hummingbirds. Nucleotide sequence data from ITS and two noncoding(More)
This study investigated the expression pattern of genes encoding for a basic PR-1 protein, a basic beta-1,3-glucanase, a peroxidase, and a sesquiterpene cyclase involved in defense responses in three pepper cultivars with different levels of resistance to Phytophthora capsici. All genes were up-regulated in infected stems of the pepper cultivars, with(More)
Small-angle x-ray solution scattering (SAXS) is analyzed with a new method to retrieve convergent model structures that fit the scattering profiles. An arbitrary hexagonal packing of several hundred beads containing the problem object is defined. Instead of attempting to compute the Debye formula for all of the possible mass distributions, a genetic(More)
Tubulin liganded with GTP at the N-site in the alpha-subunit and with GDP at the E-site in the beta-subunit (GDP-tubulin) reversibly binds one high affinity Mg2+ cation (Kb = 1.1 x 10(7) M-1), whereas tubulin liganded with GTP at both subunits (GTP-tubulin) binds one more high affinity Mg2+. The two cation binding loci are identified as nucleotide sites N(More)
We have reconstructed, from experimental approximately 2 nm resolution X-ray solution scattering profiles, the corresponding shapes and sizes of myoglobin, troponin C, spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II, chymotrypsinogen A, superoxide dismutase, ovalbumin, tubulin, nitrite reductase, catalase, the structural change of troponin C upon dissociation of the two high(More)
We have determined the kinetic scheme and the reaction rates of binding to microtubules of two fluorescent taxoids, 7-O-[N-(4'-fluoresceincarbonyl)-l-alanyl]Taxol (Flutax-1) and 7-O-[N-(2,7-difluoro-4'-fluoresceincarbonyl)-l-alanyl]Taxol (Flutax-2). Flutax-1 and Flutax-2 bind to microtubules with high affinity (K(a) approximately 10(7) m(-1), 37 degrees C).(More)
The structure of microtubules has been characterized to 3 nm resolution employing time-resolved X-ray scattering. This has revealed detailed structural features of microtubules not observed before in solution. The polymerization of highly purified tubulin, induced by the antitumour drug taxol, has been employed as a microtubule model system. This assembly(More)