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So far as we know this series of 68 cases is one of the first clinical accounts of multiple sclerosis in South America. Average age of onset was 30.7 years and female:male ratio was 2:1. The most frequent initial symptom was motor impairment and less frequent was visual loss. Most affected site of involvement in established cases was the optic nerve. There(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The mechanisms for clinical deterioration in patients with ischemic stroke are not completely understood. Several proinflammatory cytokines are released early after the onset of brain ischemia, but it is unknown whether inflammation predisposes to neurological deterioration. We assessed the implication of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms of cellular death in the tissue surrounding an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not defined. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of markers of excitotoxicity and inflammation to brain injury after ICH. METHODS A total of 124 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted within 24 hours of stroke onset were(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanisms involved in progression of stroke are little understood. Studies in animals have shown an association between neuronal death mediated by excitatory aminoacids and deterioration in focal cerebral ischaemia. We looked for an association between concentrations of glutamate and glycine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and early(More)
As ischemic stroke is associated with an excessive release of glutamate into the neuronal extracellular space, a decrease in blood glutamate levels could provide a mechanism to remove it from the brain tissue, by increasing the brain-blood gradient. In this regard, the ability of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to metabolize glutamate in blood(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine potential predictors of good outcome in primary medium to large intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) which could be useful for selecting patients for surgical procedures. METHODS Subjects were 138 patients with spontaneous hemispheric ICH >20 ml. They were non-surgically treated and were admitted consecutively to 15 hospitals within the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Elevated plasma levels of cellular fibronectin (c-Fn) reflect vascular damage, so c-Fn might be a marker of secondary bleeding risk in cerebral ischemia. We investigated whether high plasma levels of c-Fn were associated with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with acute(More)
It remains unclear why some individuals are susceptible to excitotoxicity after stroke. A possible explanation is impaired glutamate uptake. We have found a highly prevalent polymorphism in the promoter of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 gene that abolishes a putative regulatory site for activator protein-2 (AP-2) and creates a new consensus binding site(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity has been associated with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in experimental models of cerebral ischemia. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between MMP-9 concentrations in blood within 24 hours of stroke onset and subsequent HT of cerebral infarction. METHODS We studied 250 patients(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The association between hyperthermia and early neurological deterioration, increased morbidity, and mortality in acute ischemic stroke is well known. However, the timing at which the cerebral lesion may be aggravated by high temperature has not been firmly established. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of(More)