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Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects(More)
Ancient DNA sequencing has recently provided high-coverage archaic human genomes. However, the evolution of epigenetic regulation along the human lineage remains largely unexplored. We reconstructed the full DNA methylation maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan by harnessing the natural degradation processes of methylated and unmethylated cytosines.(More)
CONTEXT Osteoporosis has a significant genetic component. The aromatase-dependent conversion of androgenic precursors is the main source of estrogens in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE The objective of the investigation was to study the relationship of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the aromatase gene with osteoporosis and determine(More)
We have previously shown that several stressful situations associated with tissue injury determine a decrease in serum osteocalcin concentration. Since reduced osteocalcin production is a marker of decreased osteoblastic activity, this finding could be related to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis secondary to some diseases. Endogenous opioids are involved in(More)
Studies that elucidate why some human tissues age faster than others may shed light on how we age, and ultimately suggest what interventions may be possible. Here we utilize a recent biomarker of aging (referred to as epigenetic clock) to assess the epigenetic ages of up to 30 anatomic sites from supercentenarians (subjects who reached an age of 110 or(More)
OBJECTIVES The genetic aetiology of osteoarthritis has not yet been elucidated. To enable a well-powered genome-wide association study (GWAS) for osteoarthritis, the authors have formed the arcOGEN Consortium, a UK-wide collaborative effort aiming to scan genome-wide over 7500 osteoarthritis cases in a two-stage genome-wide association scan. Here the(More)
The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well(More)
OBJECTIVES Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis with a clear genetic component. To identify novel loci associated with hip OA we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on European subjects. METHODS We performed a two-stage meta-analysis on more than 78,000 participants. In stage 1, we synthesised data from(More)
UNLABELLED In comparison with hip fractures, increased expression of genes in the Wnt pathway and increased Wnt activity were found in bone samples and osteoblast cultures from patients with osteoarthritis, suggesting the involvement of this pathway in subchondral bone changes. No consistent differences were found in the genetic association study. (More)