José Alves Morais

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Increased circulating methylarginines (MA) have been linked to the metabolic syndrome to explain endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk. Proteins that contain MA are regulatory and release them during catabolism. We hypothesised that increased protein turnover in insulin-resistant states contributes to an increase in circulating MA. We(More)
Important deteriorations in body composition and strength occur and need to be accurately measured in advanced cancer patients (ACPs). The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between a single-frequency bioimpedance analyzer (BIA) and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA), as well as the Jamar handgrip dynometer and the Biodex handgrip(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction with aging, with strong support for an increased mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in sedentary rodent models. Whether this applies to aged human muscle is unknown, nor is it clear whether these changes are caused by sedentary behavior. Thus, we examined mitochondrial function(More)
Both diet quality and socioeconomic position (SEP) have been linked to age-related cognitive changes, but there is little understanding of how the socioeconomic context of dietary intake may shape its cognitive impact. We examined whether equal adherence to "prudent" and "Western" dietary patterns, identified by principal components analysis, was associated(More)
Obesity is associated with an increase in the fractional contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to glucose production. We tested if this was related to the altered protein metabolism in obesity. GNG(PEP) (via phosphoenol pyruvate [PEP]) was measured after a 17-h fast using the deuterated water method and 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plasma(More)
Since maximum anabolism occurs postprandially, we developed a simulated fed state with clamped hyperinsulinemia, physiological hyperglycemia, and hyperaminoacidemia (Hyper-3) and explored muscle cellular mechanisms. Whole body [1-(13)C]leucine and [3-(3)H]glucose kinetics in healthy men were compared between hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic(More)
BACKGROUND Protein anabolism in response to feeding may be impaired with aging. To determine if this could contribute to muscle loss, we studied fed-state metabolic responses in healthy, non-sarcopenic elderly women. METHODS Whole-body [(3)H]glucose and protein ([(13)C]leucine) kinetics were measured, and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate(More)
OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that 1) obesity impairs and 2) sex influences insulin sensitivity of protein metabolism, while 3) poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes accelerates protein turnover in daily fed-fasted states. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetes alters the insulin sensitivity of protein metabolism and that sex modulates it. (More)
We propose that hyperinsulinemia stimulates protein synthesis when postabsorptive plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations are maintained. During a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, many AA, notably the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), decline markedly. Therefore, we tested whether individual plasma AA could be maintained within the range of postabsorptive(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with insulin resistance of glucose and lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the effects of obesity on the insulin sensitivity of protein metabolism. DESIGN Whole-body [(13)C]leucine and [(3)H]glucose kinetics were measured in 9 lean and 10 obese women in the postabsorptive state and during a(More)