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There is increasing evidence that a subset of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons uses glutamate as a co-transmitter and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2, one of the three vesicular glutamate transporters. In the present study, double in situ hybridization was used to examine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and VGLUT2 mRNA expression during the(More)
Mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons have been suggested to use glutamate as a cotransmitter. Here, we suggest a mechanism for this form of cotransmission by showing that a subset of DA neurons both in vitro and in vivo expresses vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). Expression of VGluT2 decreases with age. Moreover, when DA neurons are grown in(More)
The "One neuron-one neurotransmitter" concept has been challenged frequently during the last three decades, and the coexistence of neurotransmitters in individual neurons is now regarded as a common phenomenon. The functional significance of neurotransmitter coexistence is, however, less well understood. Several studies have shown that a subpopulation of(More)
Recent studies have proposed that glutamate corelease by mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons regulates behavioral activation by psychostimulants. How and when glutamate release by DA neurons might play this role remains unclear. Considering evidence for early expression of the type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter in mesencephalic DA neurons, we(More)
The natural response to itch sensation is to scratch, which relieves the itch through an unknown mechanism. Interaction between pain and itch has been frequently demonstrated, and the selectivity hypothesis of itch, based on data from electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, postulates the existence of primary pain afferents capable of repressing(More)
There is solid electron microscopic data demonstrating the existence of dopamine (DA) axon terminals (varicosities) with or without synaptic membrane specializations (junctional complexes) in many parts of the CNS, and notably in neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. The dual morphological character of these DA innervations has led to the suggestion that the(More)
Somatodendritic (STD) dopamine (DA) release is a key mechanism for the autoregulatory control of DA release in the brain. However, its molecular mechanism remains undetermined. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression of synaptotagmin (Syt) isoforms explains some of the differential properties of terminal and STD DA release. Down-regulation of(More)
Many neuropsychiatric conditions are primed or triggered by different types of stressors. The mechanisms through which stress induces neuropsychiatric disease are complex and incompletely understood. A 'double hit' hypothesis of neuropsychiatric disease postulates that stress induces maladaptive behavior in two phases separated by a dormant period. Recent(More)
Impairments in axonal dopamine release are associated with neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and pathophysiological conditions promoting drug abuse and obesity. The D2 dopamine autoreceptor (D2-AR) exerts tight regulatory control of axonal dopamine (DA) release through a mechanism suggested to involve(More)
Ablating or functionally compromising sets of sensory neurons has provided important insights into peripheral modality-specific wiring in the somatosensory system. Inflammatory hyperalgesia, cold pain, and noxious mechanosensation have all been shown to depend upon Na(v)1.8-positive sensory neurons. The release of fast-acting neurotransmitters, such as(More)