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The aim of this study was to clarify which cognitive mechanisms underlie Trail Making Test (TMT) direct and derived scores. A comprehensive review of the literature on the topic was carried out to clarify which cognitive factors had been related to TMT performance. Following the review, we explored the relative contribution from working memory,(More)
Humans can flexibly alter a plan of action to adjust their behavior adaptively in changing environments. Functional neuroimaging has shown distinct patterns of activation across a frontoparietal network responsible for switching and updating such plans of action or 'task sets.' However, little is known about the temporal order of activations within(More)
The Trail Making Test (TMT) has been a useful assessment tool to investigate executive function. Several studies have recently improved the existing TMT norms by mean of large samples of healthy individuals stratified by a number of demographic variables from different populations. In contrast, criticisms have been raised about the utility of norms from(More)
Cognitive flexibility hinges on a readiness to direct attention to novel events, and on an ability to change one's mental set to find new solutions for old problems. Human event-related potential (ERP) studies have described a brain 'orienting' response to discrete novel events, marked by a frontally distributed positive potential peaking 300-400 ms(More)
Attention is a basic cognitive function and a prerequisite for other cognitive processes and is frequently impaired after traumatic brain injury. In the present study, 29 severe traumatic brain injury patients and 30 control subjects completed a battery of three neuropsychological tests of attention (WCST, TMT, Stroop). The aim was to clarify the(More)
This study aimed to clarify the neural substrates of behavioral switch and restart costs in intermittently instructed task-switching paradigms. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their categorization rule (Switch task), or else they performed two perceptually identical control(More)
Exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool that permits the detection and processing of biologically salient events even when the individual is engaged in a resource-consuming task. Indirect data suggest that the spatial frequency of stimulation may be a crucial element in this process. Behavioral and neural data (both functional and(More)
Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide valuable information about the fast brain dynamics subserving cognitive functions such as attention and working memory. Most ERP studies employ cognitive paradigms with a fixed task-set (i.e., press a button to named targets), but few have measured ERPs time-locked to shifts in set using a task-switching paradigm. The(More)