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General and simple principles are identified that govern signal transduction. The effects of kinase and phosphatase inhibition on a MAP kinase pathway are first examined in silico. Quantitative measures for the control of signal amplitude, duration and integral strength are introduced. We then identify and prove new principles, such that total control on(More)
The nos (nitrous oxide reductase) operon of Paracoccus denitrificans contains a nosX gene homologous to those found in the nos operons of other denitrifiers. NosX is also homologous to NirX, which is so far unique to P. denitrificans. Single mutations of these genes did not result in any apparent phenotype, but a double nosX nirX mutant was unable to reduce(More)
Cancer research has focused on the identification of molecular differences between cancerous and healthy cells. The emerging picture is overwhelmingly complex. Molecules out of many parallel signal transduction pathways are involved. Their activities appear to be controlled by multiple factors. The action of regulatory circuits, cross-talk between pathways(More)
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