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Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), one of the founding fathers of modern painting, is best known for his vivid colors, his vibrant painting style, and his short but highly productive career. His productivity is even higher than generally realized, as many of his known paintings cover a previous composition. This is thought to be the case in one-third of his(More)
A variety of analytical techniques augmented by the use of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), are now readily available, and they differ little, conceptually, from their common laboratory counterparts. Because of numerous advantages afforded by SR-based techniques over benchtop versions, however,(More)
The objective was the evaluation of the (cost-)effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in the European Union (EU) countries. Data were collected on recommended screening age ranges and intervals, coverage, proportion of non-negative smears and smear use. Estimates reported by representatives of each participating Member State were compared, and used as(More)
We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and In-frared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the current practice of follow-up after operations for colorectal cancer in The Netherlands in comparison with other countries. DESIGN Postal survey. SETTING All surgical departments in The Netherlands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Attitudes of surgeons towards detection and treatment of recurrences after colorectal cancer. RESULTS Of(More)
Often, just micrometers below a painting's surface lies a wealth of information, both with Old Masters such as Peter Paul Rubens and Rembrandt van Rijn and with more recent artists of great renown such as Vincent Van Gogh and James Ensor. Subsurface layers may include underdrawing, underpainting, and alterations, and in a growing number of cases(More)
X-ray radiography is a common tool in the study of old master paintings. Transmission imaging can visualize hidden paint layers as well as the structure of the panel or canvas. In some medieval altarpieces, relics seem to have been imbedded in the wooden carrier of paintings. These are most probably thin organic fibrous materials such as paper or textile,(More)
This paper describes our methods for repairing and restoring images of hidden paintings (paintings that have been painted over and are now covered by a new surface painting) that have been obtained via noninvasive X-ray fluorescence imaging of their canvases. This recently developed imaging technique measures the concentrations of various chemical elements(More)
This paper describes our work on the problem of reconstructing the original visual appearance of underpaintings (paintings that have been painted over and are now covered by a new surface painting) from noninvasive X-ray fluorescence imaging data of their canvases. This recently-developed imaging technique yields data revealing the concentrations of various(More)
Introduction: Paintings are versatile near-planar objects with material characteristics that vary widely. The fact that paint has a material presence is often overlooked, mostly due to the fact that we encounter many of these artworks through two dimensional reproductions. The capture of paintings in the third dimension is not only interesting for study,(More)