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In this paper two easy-to-use optical setups for the validation of biomechanical finite element (FE) models are presented. First, we show an easy-to-build Michelson digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) setup, yielding the out-of-plane displacement. We also introduce three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC), a stereo photogrammetric(More)
Bird beaks are layered structures, which contain a bony core and an outer keratin layer. The elastic moduli of this bone and keratin were obtained in a previous study. However, the mechanical role and interaction of both materials in stress dissipation during seed crushing remain unknown. In this paper, a multi-layered finite-element (FE) model of the Java(More)
The cells in the organ of Corti are highly organized, with a precise 3D microstructure hypothesized to be important for cochlear function. Here we provide quantitative data on the mouse organ of Corti cytoarchitecture, as determined using a new technique that combines the imaging capabilities of two-photon microscopy with the autofluorescent cell membranes(More)
Male stag beetles carry large and heavy mandibles that arose through sexual selection over mating rights. Although the mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer males are used in pugnacious fights, they are surprisingly slender. Our bite force measurements show a muscle force reduction of 18% for tip biting when compared with bites with the teeth located halfway(More)
In recent years, there has been a surge in the development of finite-element (FE) models aimed at testing biological hypotheses. For example, recent modelling efforts suggested that the beak in Darwin's finches probably evolved in response to fracture avoidance. However, knowledge of the material properties of the structures involved is crucial for any(More)
The removal of nitrate from rinse wastewater generated in the stainless steel manufacturing process by denitrification in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) was studied. Two different inocula from wastewater treatment plants were tested. The use of an inoculum previously acclimated to high nitrate concentrations led to complete denitrification in 6h(More)
Germination experiments with specific germination mutants of Bacillus subtilis, including a newly isolated mutant affected in pressure-induced germination, suggest that a pressure of 100 MPa triggers the germination cascades that are induced by the nutrient germinant alanine (Ala) and by a mixture of asparagine, glucose, fructose, and potassium ions (AGFK),(More)
Darwin's finches have radiated from a common ancestor into 14 descendent species, each specializing on distinct food resources and evolving divergent beak forms. Beak morphology in the ground finches (Geospiza) has been shown to evolve via natural selection in response to variation in food type, food availability and interspecific competition for food. From(More)
The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content(More)
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arterial system is a very important parameter to evaluate cardiovascular health. Currently, however, there is no golden standard for PWV measurement. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used for full-field time-resolved assessment of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and strains of the skin in the neck directly above the(More)