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This article analyses the work of Robert Rosen on an interpretation of metabolic networks that he called (M,R) systems. His main contribution was an attempt to prove that metabolic closure (or metabolic circularity) could be explained in purely formal terms, but his work remains very obscure and we try to clarify his line of thought. In particular, we(More)
The definition of life has excited little interest among molecular biologists during the past half-century, and the enormous development in biology during that time has been largely based on an analytical approach in which all biological entities are studied in terms of their components, the process being extended to greater and greater detail without(More)
Metabolism is usually treated as a set of chemical reactions catalysed by separate enzymes. However, various complications, such as transport of molecules across membranes, physical association of different enzymes, giving the possibility of metabolite channelling, need to be taken into account. More generally, a proper understanding of the nature of life(More)
The major insight in Robert Rosen's view of a living organism as an (M,R)-system was the realization that an organism must be "closed to efficient causation", which means that the catalysts needed for its operation must be generated internally. This aspect is not controversial, but there has been confusion and misunderstanding about the logic Rosen used to(More)
A prototype for a web application was designed and implemented as a guide to be used by clinicians when designing the best drug therapy for a specific cancer patient, given biological data derived from the patients tumor tissue biopsy. A representation of the patients metabolic pathways is displayed as a graph in the application, with nodes as substrates(More)
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