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Health care delivery in Mexico is divided in three groups: a social sector that covers approximately 53% of the population and is financed by the labor force, the state and the employer; a public, or open, sector that covers 33% of the population and is financed by federal and state funds; and a private sector that covers about 5% of the population and has(More)
Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of(More)
Internalization and degradation of live Bb within phagosomal compartments of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), allows for the release of lipoproteins, nucleic acids and other microbial products, triggering a broad and robust inflammatory response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the recognition of spirochetal ligands from whole(More)
The endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 are important in sensing foreign nucleic acids encountered by phagocytes. Because TLR8 was initially thought to be non-functional in mice, less is known about TLR8 than the genetically and functionally related TLR7. Originally associated with the recognition of single-stranded RNA of viral(More)
Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) induces inflammatory signals that differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from those generated by spirochetal lipoproteins interacting with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 on the surface of human monocytes. Of particular significance, and in contrast to lipoproteins, internalized spirochetes induce transcription of(More)
Listeria monocytogenes induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types. However, the mechanism of cell death in L. monocytogenes-infected macrophages was initially reported to be distinct from apoptosis. Here, we studied the mechanism of L. monocytogenes-induced cell death using sensitive fluorescent techniques. We found that caspase-1(More)
Fifty years ago, on March 29, 1951, Charles Dubost in France performed the first successful resection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm and replaced it with a cadaver homograft, thereby initiating the modern era of surgical correction of a common entity. This article offers a summary of the events leading to that milestone in vascular surgery.
Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, induces a robust and complex innate immune response in human monocytes, in which TLR8 cooperates with TLR2 in the induction of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible for transcription of IFN-β through IRF7. We now establish the role of Bb RNA in(More)
Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We(More)