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Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) induces inflammatory signals that differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from those generated by spirochetal lipoproteins interacting with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 on the surface of human monocytes. Of particular significance, and in contrast to lipoproteins, internalized spirochetes induce transcription of(More)
Internalization and degradation of live Bb within phagosomal compartments of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), allows for the release of lipoproteins, nucleic acids and other microbial products, triggering a broad and robust inflammatory response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the recognition of spirochetal ligands from whole(More)
The endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 are important in sensing foreign nucleic acids encountered by phagocytes. Because TLR8 was initially thought to be non-functional in mice, less is known about TLR8 than the genetically and functionally related TLR7. Originally associated with the recognition of single-stranded RNA of viral(More)
Listeria monocytogenes induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types. However, the mechanism of cell death in L. monocytogenes-infected macrophages was initially reported to be distinct from apoptosis. Here, we studied the mechanism of L. monocytogenes-induced cell death using sensitive fluorescent techniques. We found that caspase-1(More)
Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, induces a robust and complex innate immune response in human monocytes, in which TLR8 cooperates with TLR2 in the induction of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible for transcription of IFN-β through IRF7. We now establish the role of Bb RNA in(More)
Mitis-group streptococci are ubiquitous oral commensals that can promote polybacterial biofilm virulence. Using a novel murine oral mucosal co-infection model we sought to determine for the first time whether these organisms promote the virulence of C. albicans mucosal biofilms in oropharyngeal infection and explored mechanisms of pathogenic synergy. We(More)
Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a poorly understood process, despite its importance during the host immune response to infection. B. burgdorferi has been shown to bind to different receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells, including the β(2) integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3). However, whether these(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical syndrome associated with secondary syphilis (SS) reflects the propensity of Treponema pallidum (Tp) to escape immune recognition while simultaneously inducing inflammation. METHODS To better understand the duality of immune evasion and immune recognition in human syphilis, herein we used a combination of flow cytometry,(More)
We evaluated the results for primary repair of Ebstein anomaly in 61 patients, both adults and children. The records were reviewed of patients undergoing repair of Ebstein anomaly at the Congenital Heart Surgery Service of the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez" from January 1993 to August 2003. Functional, demographic, and echocardiographic(More)
The total cellular lipids of Porphyromas gingivalis, a known periodontal pathogen, were previously shown to promote dendritic cell activation and inhibition of osteoblasts through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The purpose of the present investigation was to fractionate all lipids of P. gingivalis and define which lipid classes account for the(More)