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In vivo MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortex thickness are providing novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about their reliability. We investigated how the reliability of cortical thickness measurements is affected by MRI instrument-related factors, including scanner field strength, manufacturer, upgrade and(More)
Although visual attention is known to modulate brain activity in the posterior parietal, prefrontal, and visual sensory areas, the unique roles of these areas in the control of attentional resources have remained unclear. Here, we report a dissociation in the response profiles of these areas. In a parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)(More)
Longitudinal and multi-site clinical studies create the imperative to characterize and correct technological sources of variance that limit image reproducibility in high-resolution structural MRI studies, thus facilitating precise, quantitative, platform-independent, multi-site evaluation. In this work, we investigated the effects that imaging gradient(More)
Automated MRI-derived measurements of in-vivo human brain volumes provide novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about measurement reliability. Here we assess the impact of image acquisition variables (scan session, MRI sequence, scanner upgrade, vendor and field strengths), FreeSurfer segmentation pre-processing variables(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the neural correlates of attention and working memory deficits in patients with HIV-1. METHOD fMRI was used to evaluate brain activity in 11 patients with HIV and 11 age-, sex-, education-, and handedness-matched seronegative subjects, while performing a battery of tasks that required different levels of attention for working(More)
A successful method for removing artifacts from electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is Independent Component Analysis (ICA), but its implementation remains largely user-dependent. Here, we propose a completely automatic algorithm (ADJUST) that identifies artifacted independent components by combining stereotyped artifact-specific spatial and temporal(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A previous fMRI study demonstrated increased brain activation during working memory tasks in patients with HIV with mild dementia. The current study aims to determine whether patients who are HIV-1 positive and have normal cognitive function also show increased brain activation on fMRI. METHODS Blood oxygenation level-dependent(More)
Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule(More)
Neuroimaging studies have revealed a number of brain regions that show a reduced blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during externally directed tasks compared with a resting baseline. These regions constitute a network whose operation has become known as the default mode. The source of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal(More)
BACKGROUND In the absence of overt stimuli, the brain shows correlated fluctuations in functionally related brain regions. Approximately ten largely independent resting state networks (RSNs) showing this behaviour have been documented to date. Recent studies have reported the existence of an RSN in the basal ganglia - albeit inconsistently and without the(More)