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Synapses store information by long-lasting modifications of their structure and molecular composition, but the precise chronology of these changes has not been studied at single-synapse resolution in real time. Here we describe the spatiotemporal reorganization of postsynaptic substructures during long-term potentiation (LTP) at individual dendritic spines.(More)
We introduce a new combinatorial dimension that gives a good approximation of the number of queries needed to learn in the exact learning model, no matter what set of queries is used. This new dimension generalizes previous dimensions providing upper and lower bounds for all sorts of queries, and not for just example-based queries as in previous works. Our(More)
Using quantitative analyses, we identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that were abundantly expressed in visual cortex and that responded to dark rearing and/or monocular deprivation. The most substantially altered miRNA, miR-132, was rapidly upregulated after eye opening and was delayed by dark rearing. In vivo inhibition of miR-132 in mice prevented ocular(More)
It is now well established that plant cell wall oligosaccharides can stimulate or inhibit growth and development in plants. In addition, it has been determined that seaweed (marine algae) cell wall polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides can enhance growth in plants. In particular, oligo-alginates obtained by depolymerization of alginates from brown(More)
Leaves of tobacco plants var. Burley were sprayed with water (control) or with oligo-carrageenans kappa2 (K), lambda (L), and iota (I) at 1 mg ml−1, once a week, four times in total, and cultivated for 4 months without treatment. Plants treated with K, L, and I showed an increase in leaf biomass of 1.9, 1.8, and 2.5 times, respectively, despite that(More)
Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that arises from mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 has a large number of targets and a wide range of functions, suggesting the hypothesis that functional signaling mechanisms upstream of synaptic and circuit maturation may contribute to our understanding of the disorder(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW A major challenge for understanding neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), is to advance the findings from gene discovery to an exposition of neurobiological mechanisms that underlie these disorders and subsequently translate this knowledge into mechanism-based therapeutics. A promising way to proceed is(More)
Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green,(More)