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Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process involving host gene and environmental interactions. Diverse case–control studies using different types of controls addressed the familial aggregation role for gastric cancer development. Our aim is to discuss the advantages and expected bias according to the different type of eligible controls. A PubMed(More)
OBJECTIVE Endoanal ultrasonography can detect organic causes of anal pain without pathology on physical examination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of endoanal ultrasonography in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of idiopathic and functional anal pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective study, between 15 March 2005 and 15 June(More)
While the overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Portugal is around 1%, there are no published studies examining HBV genotypes in this country. This study aimed to survey HBV genotypes in the northern Portugal and to examine the possible associations between genotypes and gender, viral transmission routes, viral markers, viral load, and(More)
Idiopathic varices of the entire colon are very rare. We report on a 64-year-old patient with massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage from an extensive ileocolonic varix. Diagnosis was established by colonoscopy. The patient underwent an emergency ileocolectomy with satisfactory results. This rare case shows the importance of colonoscopy in the evaluation(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiological and genotypic profile of chronic hepatitis B infection in Northern Portugal. METHODS This survey comprised 358 subjects with positive serology for hepatitis B antigen for at least six months, recruited from specialist appointments in two hospitals in Northern Portugal between 2008 and 2009. Data were obtained from(More)
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