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Quantifying Quantitative Literacy: Age Heaping and the History of Human Capital
Age data frequently display excess frequencies at attractive numbers, such as multiples of five. We use this “age heaping” to measure cognitive ability in quantitative reasoning, or “numeracy.” We
The biological standard of living in Europe during the last two millennia
This paper offers the first anthropometric estimates on the biological standard of living in central Europe in the first millennium, and expands the literature on the second millenium. The overall
What made southwest German firms innovative around 1900? Assessing the importance of intra- and inter-industry externalities
This paper investigates the impact of clustering on the innovative activity of firms. The study, one of the few using firm-level data, is based on a newly constructed dataset, including information
The Global Status of Economic History
ABSTRACT How many economic historians are there? In which countries or regions are they concentrated? What can we learn from the number of economic historians participating in world congresses, and
Book production and the onset of modern economic growth
We provide a new data set on per capita book production as a proxy for advanced literacy skills, and assess this relative to other measures. While literacy proxies very basic skills, book production
Numeracy and the Impact of High Food Prices in Industrializing Britain, 1780–1850
Abstract Using census-based data on the ability to recall one's age, we show that low levels of nutrition impaired numeracy in industrializing England, 1780 to 1850: cognitive ability declined among