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This article describes an approach to motor synergies that allows them to be quantified in people with atypical movement patterns during exercise or practice. Within this approach, motor variability may be classified with respect to a task-specific performance variable as "good" (not affecting the variable) or "bad" (changing the variable). The authors(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the slowing of responses to a target that appears in the same location as a previous event. Many researchers have speculated that IOR arises from inhibitory neural processes that have developed through evolution to facilitate efficient search patterns by biasing the action and/or attention of an individual towards novel(More)
The reports by Fitts and Peterson [J. Exp. Psychol. 67(2) (1964) 103-113] and Klapp [J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 104(2) (1975) 147-153] concerning the effects of movement amplitude and target diameter on reaction time present conflicting results. Fitts and Peterson reported that reaction time increased when movement amplitude was lengthened.(More)
The motor program is a concept that has had a major influence on theorizing in the field of motor control. However, there has been a lack of consensus as to what exactly is a motor program and its role in movement organization and execution. In 1994 Morris, Summers, Matyas, and Iansek concluded from a review of the application of the motor program concept(More)
This study was designed to determine if movement planning strategies incorporating the use of visual feedback during manual aiming are specific to individual movements. Advance information about target location and visual context was manipulated using precues. Participants exhibited a shorter reaction time and a longer movement time when they were certain(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) has been shown to occur when an individual returns to a target location (within-person IOR) and when an individual moves to a location just engaged by another individual (between-person IOR). Although within- and between-person IOR likely result from the same inhibitory mechanisms, different processes must activate these(More)
In this study, we described a sequence of changes of the electromyographic (EMG) and depression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex that precede and follow the onset of ballistic head rotation in freely standing human subjects. During head rotation, a sequence of EMG changes occurred simultaneously in Sol and in biceps femoris muscle (BF). Specifically, changes to(More)
We have developed a high-throughput, multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RTPCR) assay that is suitable for the analysis of medium-to low-copy cellular RNA transcripts from small numbers of cells (10(4)). High throughput was attained by utilizing microplate-based RNA extraction and RTPCR protocols, followed by PCR product visualization of a multiwelled(More)
OBJECTIVE Conversion paresis patients and healthy people feigning weakness both exhibit weak voluntary movement without detectable neuropathology. Uniquely, conversion patients lack a sense of conscious awareness of the origin of their impairment. We investigated whether conversion paresis patients show distinct electroencephalographic (EEG) markers(More)
Fishing and pollution are chronic stressors that can prolong recovery of coral reefs and contribute to ecosystem decline. While this premise is generally accepted, management interventions are complicated because the contributions from individual stressors are difficult to distinguish. The present study examined the extent to which fishing pressure and(More)