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STUDY OBJECTIVES Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by excessive electromyographic (EMG) activity due to dysfunction of the brainstem structures modulating REM sleep atonia. Patients with idiopathic RBD often develop a neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson disease, over the years, suggesting progression of an(More)
Axonal regeneration and organ reinnervation are the necessary steps for functional recovery after a nerve lesion. However, these processes are frequently accompanied by collateral events that may not be beneficial, such as: (1) Uncontrolled branching of growing axons at the lesion site. (2) Misdirection of axons and target organ reinnervation errors, (3)(More)
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a clinically well-characterized chronic pain condition of high socio-economic impact. Although the pathophysiology is still unclear, there is increasing evidence for nervous system dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. In this case-control study we investigated function and morphology of small nerve fibres in 25(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The aim of our study was to determine which muscle or combination of muscles (either axial or limb muscles, lower or upper limb muscles, or proximal or distal limb muscles) provides the highest rates of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phasic electromyographic (EMG) activity seen in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). SETTING(More)
Transient decrease in the excitability of a reflex circuit following its activation by appropriate stimuli is a well-recognized phenomenon, but it is unclear how this applies to thermoalgesic stimuli during quantitative sensory testing (QST). We examined the effects induced by a thermoalgesic (conditioning) stimulus on the response to a subsequent (test)(More)
Cold allodynia is a common sign of neuropathic pain patients but its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, partly because the populations of neurons responding to cold stimuli and their transduction mechanisms have not been fully determined. We report a patient with a small-fiber neuropathy of unknown origin, whose main complaint is cold(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess the innervation density of dermal nerves in human skin biopsies by bright-field immunohistochemistry. METHODS The size of dermal area where nerve length was quantified was validated in 30 skin biopsy sections (5 controls and 5 patients with small-fiber neuropathy [SFN]). It was obtained dividing an area of 200-μm depth from(More)
This study analyzed the relationship between the density of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) and the characteristics of either nociceptive laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) or contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEPs) in patients with painful sensory polyneuropathy with the aim to determine which parameters of LEPs and CHEPs more reliably reflect IENF loss. A(More)
The brainstem pathways that mediate the somatosensory blink reflex (SBR) are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the circuits of the SBR might be affected separately from those of the trigeminal blink reflex (TBR). We examined 7 patients with mesencephalic lesions and 8 patients with medullary lesions. The SBR was elicited by median nerve(More)
A single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulus (TMS) may induce contraction in many muscles of the body at the same time. This is specially the case when using the double-cone coil to obtain the motor evoked potentials in leg muscles. Even if intensity is kept below threshold for the soleus muscle, TMS induces facilitation of the soleus H reflex that is(More)