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Renewed interest in the use of the embryonic chicken as a model of perinatal cardiovascular regulation has inspired new questions about the control mechanisms that respond to acute perturbations, such as hypoxia. The objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular responses, the regulatory mechanisms involved in those cardiovascular responses,(More)
Adrenergic and cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system of embryonic chickens was determined during days 12, 15, 19, 20, and 21 of development. Administration of the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 mg/kg) resulted in no significant change in heart rate or arterial pressure at any developmental age. In addition, the general cardiovascular depressive(More)
Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic reptiles, and this is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on the in ovo development of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circulating catecholamine levels in a reptile. We measured heart rate (f(H)) and chorioallantoic arterial blood pressure (MAP) in(More)
Pharmacological manipulation of peripheral resistance via sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine was used to study baroreflex function over the latter two-thirds of incubation in embryonic chickens. From day 9 to day 19 of incubation, there is a positive linear relation between heart rate and blood pressure, indicating the feedforward action of arterial(More)
Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO)(More)
In mammals and birds, low oxygen levels in the lungs cause a constriction of the pulmonary vasculature. This response is locally mediated and is considered to be important for local matching of perfusion and ventilation. It is not known whether reptiles respond in a similar fashion. The present study describes the effects of altering lung oxygen levels (at(More)
Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food(More)
The baroreflex is the main short term compensatory mechanism to buffer blood pressure changes and maintain circulatory homeostasis. Its ontogeny and importance during prenatal life is not fully understood so we used broiler chickens to investigate the maturation of the baroreflex in late incubation using a novel method that measured changes in heart rate(More)
In the mammalian heart the metabolic costs of pressure loading exceed those of volume loading. As evidence suggests that the opposite may be true in fish, we evaluated the metabolic costs of volume and pressure loading in the isolated trout heart and compared the results with the mammalian heart based on the biomechanical properties of cardiac muscle. The(More)