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Renewed interest in the use of the embryonic chicken as a model of perinatal cardiovascular regulation has inspired new questions about the control mechanisms that respond to acute perturbations, such as hypoxia. The objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular responses, the regulatory mechanisms involved in those cardiovascular responses,(More)
The cardiac limb of the baroreflex loop was studied in the saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The classical pharmacological methodology using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was used to trigger blood pressure changes, and the resulting alterations in heart rate were analysed quantitatively using a logistic function. Interindividual differences(More)
Chronic hypoxic incubation is a common tool used to address the plasticity of morphological and physiological characteristics during vertebrate development. In this study chronic hypoxic incubation of embryonic American alligators resulted in both morphological (mass) and physiological changes. During normoxic incubation embryonic mass, liver mass and heart(More)
Adrenergic and cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system of embryonic chickens was determined during days 12, 15, 19, 20, and 21 of development. Administration of the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 mg/kg) resulted in no significant change in heart rate or arterial pressure at any developmental age. In addition, the general cardiovascular depressive(More)
The reactivity of human fetoplacental arteries is regulated by humoral and local factors of maternal and fetal origin. The chorioallantoic (CA) arteries of bird embryos are homologous to fetoplacental arteries and fulfill the same gas-exchange purpose without maternal influences, but their reactivity has not been studied in detail. In the present study we(More)
In trout and salmon, the metabolic costs of exercise and feeding are additive, which would suggest that gastrointestinal blood flow during exercise is maintained to preserve digestive and absorptive processes related to the specific dynamic action (SDA) of food. However, in most published studies, gastrointestinal blood flow drops during swimming, hypoxia,(More)
By exposing chicken embryos to hypoxia (10%) acutely (2, 4, and 6 hr) during early development (2, 3, and 4 days) we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia has an impact on embryonic growth and impairs cardiac development at the time cardiac morphogenesis is taking place. After the hypoxic perturbation, the embryos were allowed to develop until day 9, when(More)
Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic reptiles, and this is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on the in ovo development of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circulating catecholamine levels in a reptile. We measured heart rate (f(H)) and chorioallantoic arterial blood pressure (MAP) in(More)
In reptiles the influence of local vascular factors on blood flow regulation is vaguely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) on vascular function in anesthetized Trachemys scripta. The experimental protocol consisted of serial injections of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 25 microg. kg(-1)), L-arginine (185 mg.(More)
Baroreflex regulation appears in different species at different points in embryonic development. This study was designed to understand the development of the baroreflex in embryos of the American alligator at four different points of embryonic development (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of a total incubation period of 72 days) and in 1-week-old hatchlings. Data from(More)