Jordan W Squair

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Postural responses (PR) to a balance perturbation differ between the first and subsequent perturbations. One explanation for this first trial effect is that perturbations act as startling stimuli that initiate a generalized startle response (GSR) as well as the PR. Startling stimuli, such as startling acoustic stimuli (SAS), are known to elicit GSRs, as(More)
There is very little consensus regarding the mechanisms underlying postural control. Whereas some theories suggest that posture is controlled at lower levels (i.e., brain stem and spinal cord), other theories have proposed that upright stance is controlled using higher centers, including the motor cortex. In the current investigation, we used(More)
Damage to the central nervous system, as in the case of spinal cord injury (SCI), results in disrupted supraspinal sympathetic influence and subsequent cardiovascular control impairments. Consequently, people with SCI suffer from disordered basal hemodynamics and devastating fluctuations in blood pressure, as in the case of autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which(More)
Previous research has shown that when the COM is stabilized without participant awareness, COP displacements increase. This finding suggests that postural sway under normal conditions may be exploratory and used as a means of acquiring sensory information. However, based on the theory that posture is controlled using internal models, it could be argued that(More)
We sought to determine the economic burden of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare system in a case series of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) presenting to emergency care. In doing so, we sought to illustrate the potential return on investments in the translation of evidence-informed practices and developments(More)
OBJECTIVE To use a combination of electrophysiological techniques to determine the extent of preserved muscle activity below the clinically-defined level of motor-complete spinal cord injury. METHODS Transcranial magnetic stimulation and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were used to investigate whether there was any preserved muscle activity in(More)
STUDY DESIGN Diagnostic study. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to compare patterns of electromyography (EMG) recordings of abdominal muscle function in persons with motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI) above T6 and in able-bodied controls, and to determine whether manual examination or ultrasound measures of muscle activation can be accurate(More)
OBJECTIVE To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. SUBJECTS Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. METHODS Transcranial magnetic stimulation was(More)
What information is necessary for the motor system to adapt its behaviour? Visual hand-to-target error provides salient information about reach performance, but can learning proceed without this information? We investigated adaptation to an unperceived target perturbation under visual open-loop conditions. Participants looked and reached, without any vision(More)
Copyright: © 2012 Squair. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivates License, which permits anyone to download and share the article, provided the original author(s) are cited and the works are not used for commercial purposes or altered in any way. Abstract Craniopagus twins, who(More)
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