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A new method was developed to measure spectrally and spatially resolved cone pigment optical density difference in normal human subjects. Using digitized television images of human retinas scanned before and after bleaching the cone pigments with a bright light, unique high-resolution images of cone pigment density difference were produced. The spectral(More)
Key Points: • Lake surface waters are warming rapidly but are spatially heterogeneous • Ice-covered lakes are typically warming at rates greater than air temperatures • Both geomorphic and climate factors influence lake warming rates Supporting Information: • Figures S1–S4 and Tables S1–S4 Citation: O'Reilly, C. M., et al. (2015), Rapid and highly variable(More)
Using fundus reflectometry, we have measured a decrease in the density difference of the foveal cone visual pigments with age in human subjects. This decrease is consistent with a loss of visual pigment in the retina with age. Fundus reflectance and normalized density difference spectra data are presented for these subjects. A decrease in cone pigment with(More)
Keywords: Lake analyzer Stability Mixing Lake number Wedderburn number Schmidt stability Thermocline depth Software Instrumented buoy GLEON a b s t r a c t Lake Analyzer is a numerical code coupled with supporting visualization tools for determining indices of mixing and stratification that are critical to the biogeochemical cycles of lakes and reservoirs.(More)
Disturbances act as powerful structuring forces on ecosystems. To ask whether environmental microbial communities have capacity to recover after a large disturbance event, we conducted a whole-ecosystem manipulation, during which we imposed an intense disturbance on freshwater microbial communities by artificially mixing a temperate lake during peak summer(More)
Lake ecosystems and the services that they provide to people are profoundly influenced by dissolved organic matter derived from terrestrial plant tissues. These terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) inputs to lakes have changed substantially in recent decades, and will likely continue to change. In this paper, we first briefly review the substantial(More)
Cheaper, simpler alternatives to CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA detection for assessing the prognosis of HIV-1 infection are needed for resource-poor settings. However, little is known about the predictive value of alternative assays, in particular in children. We assessed the prognostic value of total lymphocyte count, immune complex-dissociated p24(More)
Global environmental change has influenced lake surface temperatures, a key driver of ecosystem structure and function. Recent studies have suggested significant warming of water temperatures in individual lakes across many different regions around the world. However, the spatial and temporal coherence associated with the magnitude of these trends remains(More)
The Web was originally developed to support collaboration in science. Although scientists benefit from many forms of collaboration on the Web (e.g., blogs, wikis, forums, code sharing, etc.), most collaborative projects are coordinated over email, phone calls, and in-person meetings. Our goal is to develop a collaborative infrastructure for scientists to(More)