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p53 and INK4a/ARF mutations promote tumorigenesis and drug resistance, in part, by disabling apoptosis. We show that primary murine lymphomas also respond to chemotherapy by engaging a senescence program controlled by p53 and p16(INK4a). Hence, tumors with p53 or INK4a/ARF mutations-but not those lacking ARF alone-respond poorly to cyclophosphamide therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with cytopenias, splenomegaly, poor quality of life, and shortened survival. About half of patients with myelofibrosis carry a gain-of-function mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2 V617F) that contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease.(More)
Constitutive JAK2 activation in hematopoietic cells by the JAK2V617F mutation recapitulates myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) phenotypes in mice, establishing JAK2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy. Although most polycythemia vera patients carry the JAK2V617F mutation, half of those with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis do(More)
We describe here the existence of a heregulin-HER3 autocrine loop, and the contribution of heregulin-dependent, HER2-mediated HER3 activation to gefitinib insensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ADAM17 protein, a major ErbB ligand sheddase, is upregulated in NSCLC and is required not only for heregulin-dependent HER3 signaling, but also for(More)
Evading apoptosis is considered to be a hallmark of cancer, because mutations in apoptotic regulators invariably accompany tumorigenesis. Many chemotherapeutic agents induce apoptosis, and so disruption of apoptosis during tumour evolution can promote drug resistance. For example, Akt is an apoptotic regulator that is activated in many cancers and may(More)
The application of RNA interference (RNAi) to mammalian systems has the potential to revolutionize genetics and produce novel therapies. Here we investigate whether RNAi applied to a well-characterized gene can stably suppress gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells and produce detectable phenotypes in mice. Deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene(More)
Although the p53 tumor suppressor acts in a plethora of processes that influence cellular proliferation and survival, it remains unclear which p53 functions are essential for tumor suppression and, as a consequence, are selected against during tumor development. Using a mouse model harboring primary, genetically modified myc-driven lymphomas, we show that(More)
The ErbB family of receptors is overexpressed in numerous human tumors. Overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Use of ErbB-specific antibodies to the receptors (Herceptin or Erbitux) or ErbB-specific small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity (Iressa or Tarceva) has shown clinical efficacy in several(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1; IDO) mediates oxidative cleavage of tryptophan, an amino acid essential for cell proliferation and survival. IDO1 inhibition is proposed to have therapeutic potential in immunodeficiency-associated abnormalities, including cancer. Here, we describe INCB024360, a novel IDO1 inhibitor, and investigate its roles in(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor acts to integrate multiple stress signals into a series of diverse antiproliferative responses. One of the most important p53 functions is its ability to activate apoptosis, and disruption of this process can promote tumor progression and chemoresistance. p53 apparently promotes apoptosis through transcription-dependent and(More)