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The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature(More)
Bilateral kidney ligation of mice immediately before injection of misonidazole (MIS) prolongs the plasma half-life of this radiosensitizer from about 2 h (in normal mice) to 10-11 h, similar to that in man. Kidney ligation does not, however, change the relative proportions of MIS and its O-demethylated metabolite, Ro-05-9963, for the first 12 h after MIS(More)
BACKGROUND Arsenic is a nonmutagenic carcinogen affecting millions of people. The cellular impact of this metalloid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined by profiling global gene expression and sensitivity phenotypes. These data were then mapped to a metabolic network composed of all known biochemical reactions in yeast, as well as the yeast network of(More)
We present a method for the global analysis of the function of genes in budding yeast based on hierarchical clustering of the quantitative sensitivity profiles of the 4756 strains with individual homozygous deletion of nonessential genes to a broad range of cytotoxic or cytostatic agents. This method is superior to other global methods of identifying the(More)
SR 4233 (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide, WIN 59075, tirapazamine) is the lead compound in a new class of bioreductive anticancer drugs, the benzotriazine di-N-oxides. It is currently undergoing Phase I clinical testing. The preferential tumour cell killing of SR 4233 is a result of its high specific toxicity to cells at low oxygen tensions. Such(More)
Experiments were carried out to determine whether the enhancement of alkylating-agent cytotoxicity seen after large single doses of misonidazole (MISO) in mouse tumours can also be achieved by prolonged exposure to low MISO levels similar to those which can be tolerated clinically. The level in mouse blood plasma could be maintained at about 100(More)
The physiology of solid tumors differs from that of normal tissues in a number of important aspects, the majority of which stem from differences between the two vasculatures. Compared with the regular, ordered vasculature of normal tissues, blood vessels in tumors are often highly abnormal, distended capillaries with leaky walls and sluggish flow. Tumor(More)
The effect of misonidazole (MISO) on the cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CY) was investigated in the mouse. The response of the RIF-1 tumour was measured by growth delay and by cell survival in a cloning assay. MISO enhanced the cytotoxicity of CY. For single treatment, enhancement was maximal when MISO was given 30 min to 2 h before CY. The enhancement(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the impact of C-reactive protein (CRP) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expression of tissue factor (TF) and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI). METHODS AND RESULTS TF mRNA, protein, and activity levels were significantly higher in VSMCs isolated from CRP-transgenic (Tg) mice than from wild-type (WT) mice. TFPI expression was(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor irradiation blocks local angiogenesis, forcing any recurrent tumor to form new vessels from circulating cells. We have previously demonstrated that the post-irradiation recurrence of human glioblastomas in the brains of nude mice can be delayed or prevented by inhibiting circulating blood vessel-forming cells by blocking the interaction of(More)