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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
We tested the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) responses to physical and mental stress are associated with polymorphisms in the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (AR) gene. We studied normotensive, young, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The subjects underwent automated BP measurements at the brachial and digital arteries and were subjected to mental(More)
Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) exhibit symptoms suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion and an excessive decrease in cerebral blood flow associated with standing despite sustained systemic blood pressure. In 9 patients (8 women and 1 man aged 22 to 48 years) with IOI, we tested the hypothesis that volume loading (2000 cc normal saline)(More)
BACKGROUND Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an(More)
BACKGROUND Water drinking elicits a sympathetically mediated pressor response in multiple-system atrophy patients through an unknown mechanism. We reasoned that gastrointestinal distention, hyposomotic stimulation, or both contribute to the water-induced pressor response. METHODS We compared the response to normal saline and water on blood pressure in 10(More)
Two experiments studied the effects of intermodality change on electrodermal responses and on reaction time to a secondary task probe stimulus after 24 habituation training trials with either a tone or a vibrotactile stimulus. The probe was a visual stimulus of 500 ms duration, and within-stimulus probes occurred 300 ms following stimulus onset. Experiment(More)
Deposition of Burkholderia pseudomallei within either the lungs or nasal passages of the Balb/c murine model resulted in different infection kinetics. The infection resulting from the inhalation of B. pseudomallei within a 12 μm particle aerosol was prolonged compared to a 1 μm particle aerosol with a mean time-to-death (MTD) of 174.7 ± 14.9 h and 73.8 ±(More)
Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are used as a model of aging and age-associated diseases. SAMP8 are prone strains that show shortened life span and deficits in learning and memory processes, while SAMR1 are strains of accelerated senescence-resistant, long-lived mice. Due to their abnormal APP (amyloid precursor protein) metabolism in brain, SAMP8 may be(More)