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To improve the specificity and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Society for PSP, Inc. (SPSP) sponsored an international workshop to develop an accurate and universally accepted set of criteria for(More)
Based on the recent literature and collective experience, an international consortium developed revised guidelines for the diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. The validation process retrospectively reviewed clinical records and compared the sensitivity of proposed and earlier criteria in a multi-site sample of patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Data from the human motor cortex suggest that, depending on polarity, direct current (DC) brain polarization can depress or activate cortical neurons. Activating effects on the frontal lobe might be beneficial for patients with frontal lobe disorders. This phase 1 study tested the safety of frontal DC, including its effects on frontal and other(More)
Primary visual cortex receives visual input from the eyes through the lateral geniculate nuclei, but is not known to receive input from other sensory modalities. Its level of activity, both at rest and during auditory or tactile tasks, is higher in blind subjects than in normal controls, suggesting that it can subserve nonvisual functions; however, a direct(More)
Complex problem-solving and planning involve the most anterior part of the frontal lobes including the fronto-polar prefrontal cortex (FPPC), which is especially well developed in humans compared with other primates. The specific role of this region in human cognition, however, is poorly understood. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging,(More)
Humans often sacrifice material benefits to endorse or to oppose societal causes based on moral beliefs. Charitable donation behavior, which has been the target of recent experimental economics studies, is an outstanding contemporary manifestation of this ability. Yet the neural bases of this unique aspect of human altruism, which extends beyond(More)
Evidence from pioneering animal research has suggested that the amygdala is involved in the processing of aversive stimuli, particularly fear-related information. Fear is central in the evolution of the mammalian brain: it is automatically and rapidly elicited by potentially dangerous and deadly events. The view that the amygdala shares the main(More)
Double-step experiments have demonstrated that retinotopic coding is inadequate to explain the spatial performance of the saccadic system. In such experiments a subject is asked to make two successive saccades to fixate two sequentially flashed targets each of which disappears before the first saccade. Despite the dissonance thus created between the retinal(More)
Abstract There are now numerous observations of subtle right hemisphere (RH) contributions to language comprehension. It has been suggested that these contributions reflect coarse semantic coding in the RH. That is, the RH weakly activates large semantic fields-including concepts distantly related to the input word-whereas the left hemisphere (LH) strongly(More)
We compared procedural learning, translation of procedural knowledge into declarative knowledge, and use of declarative knowledge in age-matched normal volunteers (n = 30), patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 20), and patients with cerebellar degeneration (n = 15) by using a serial reaction time task. Patients with Parkinson's disease achieved procedural(More)