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Over 400,000 babies may be born annually following intrauterine exposure to opiates, stimulants and other illicit drugs. In addition, fetal exposure to alcohol and nicotine is common: of the 56 million women in the childbearing age range, 34 million are drinkers and 18 million are smokers. Published epidemiologic data suggest a strong association between(More)
To assess the possible relationship between maternal drug use during pregnancy and subsequent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we identified 1760 cases of SIDS from a population of more than 1.2 million infants (1.45/1000) born in New York City between 1979 and 1989. The SIDS rate in drug-exposed infants was 5.83 per 1000 infants, compared with 1.39 per(More)
Because there is a lack of agreed upon diagnostic criteria, it is critical to understand the natural history of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children in order to establish treatment strategies based on objective data.The Penn State Child Cohort is a representative, general-population sample of 700 elementary school children at baseline, of whom 421(More)
Over the last 15years, many studies have established an association of sleep apnea with inflammation and metabolic aberrations. However, no controlled studies have examined potential gender effects in this association. We recruited 120 middle-aged, predominantly non-obese mild-to-moderate sleep apneics and controls (62 males, 58 females). All participants(More)
BACKGROUND Insomnia symptoms are the most common parent-reported sleep complaints in children; however, little is known about the pathophysiology of childhood insomnia symptoms, including their association with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. The objective of this study is to examine the association between parent-reported insomnia(More)
Standard percentile curves are presented for weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference at birth for a population of 27,963 singleton infants born between the gestational ages of 26 and 42 weeks at a large, private hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. At term, all four growth parameters were significantly greater in male than in female infants.(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15-35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. METHODS A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Assess the short- and long-term stability of sleep duration in patients with insomnia and normal-sleeping controls. DESIGN Observational short-term and prospective studies. SETTING Sleep laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Patients with insomnia (n = 150) and controls (n = 151) were recruited from the local community or sleep disorders clinic. A(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Objective and subjective measures of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are only weakly associated. No study, however, has examined whether these two measures of EDS differ in terms of underlying mechanisms and prognostic value. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-6 (IL-6) appear to promote sleepiness/fatigue, while the stress(More)