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Successful integration of advanced semiconductor devices with biological systems will accelerate basic scientific discoveries and their translation into clinical technologies. In neuroscience generally, and in optogenetics in particular, the ability to insert light sources, detectors, sensors, and other components into precise locations of the deep brain(More)
Optogenetics is now a widely accepted tool for spatiotemporal manipulation of neuronal activity. However, a majority of optogenetic approaches use binary on/off control schemes. Here, we extend the optogenetic toolset by developing a neuromodulatory approach using a rationale-based design to generate a Gi-coupled, optically sensitive, mu-opioid-like(More)
This paper presents an extension to our work on estimating the probability distribution by using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model in an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) [1]. We propose a method that directly samples a MRF model to generate new population. We also present a new EDA, called the Distribution Estimation Using MRF with direct sampling(More)
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dynorphinergic system are widely implicated in motivated behaviors. Prior studies have shown that activation of the dynorphin-kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system leads to aversive, dysphoria-like behavior. However, the endogenous sources of dynorphin in these circuits remain unknown. We investigated whether dynorphinergic(More)
In vivo pharmacology and optogenetics hold tremendous promise for dissection of neural circuits, cellular signaling, and manipulating neurophysiological systems in awake, behaving animals. Existing neural interface technologies, such as metal cannulas connected to external drug supplies for pharmacological infusions and tethered fiber optics for(More)
Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the(More)
The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) system is one of the first systems engaged following a stressful event. While numerous groups have demonstrated that LC-NE neurons are activated by many different stressors, the underlying neural circuitry and the role of this activity in generating stress-induced anxiety has not been elucidated. Using a combination(More)
Optogenetics has provided a revolutionary approach to dissecting biological phenomena. However, the generation and use of optically active GPCRs in these contexts is limited and it is unclear how well an opsin-chimera GPCR might mimic endogenous receptor activity. Here we show that a chimeric rhodopsin/b 2 adrenergic receptor (opto-b 2 AR) is similar in(More)
Previous research has demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens is a site where opioids and cannabinoids interact to alter feeding behavior. However, the influence of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) on the well-characterized model of intra-accumbens opioid driven high-fat feeding behavior has not been explored. The present experiments(More)
Previous research has demonstrated that administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists into the nucleus accumbens increases high-fat diet consumption in sated rats and has shown a role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) activity in mediating this response. The present experiments were conducted to examine the role of BLA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat(More)