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CC49 is a "second generation" monoclonal antibody to B72.3, which reacts with the pancarcinoma antigen TAG-72. CC49 has been shown to efficiently target human colon carcinoma xenografts and is currently being evaluated in both diagnostic and therapeutic clinical trials. We describe here the construction and characterization of a recombinant single-chain Fv(More)
The effects of linker length on binding affinity and degree of aggregation have been examined in the antifluorescein 4-4-20 and anticarcinoma CC49 single-chain Fvs. Longer linkers in the antifluorescein sFvs have higher affinities for fluorescein and aggregate less. A proteolytically susceptible site between Lys8 and Ser9, in the previously reported 212(More)
Introduction of a disulfide bond by site-directed mutagenesis was found to enhance the stability of subtilisin BPN' (EC 3.4.21.14) under a variety of conditions. The location of the new disulfide bond was selected with the aid of a computer program, which scored various sites according to the amount of distortion that an introduced disulfide linkage would(More)
Six individual amino acid substitutions at separate positions in the tertiary structure of subtilisin BPN' (EC 3.4.21.14) were found to increase the stability of this enzyme, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry and decreased rates of thermal inactivation. These stabilizing changes, N218S, G169A, Y217K, M50F, Q206C, and N76D, were discovered(More)
A weak Ca2+ binding site in the bacterial serine protease subtilisin BPN' (EC 3.4.21.14) was chosen as a model to explore the feasibility of stabilizing a protein by increasing the binding affinity at a metal ion binding site. The existence of this weak Ca2+ binding site was first discovered through a study of the rate of thermal inactivation of wild-type(More)
In previous studies, we have compared the immunochemical properties, the in vivo pharmacokinetics, and the tumor penetrance of a radioiodinated single-chain Fv (sFv) in comparison with other immunoglobulin (Ig) forms (intact IgG, F(ab')2, and Fab') (Cancer Res., 51: 6363-6371, 1991). Biodistribution studies demonstrated a higher percent injected dose/g in(More)
The crystal complex of fluorescein bound to the high-affinity anti-fluorescein 4-4-20 Fab (Ka = 10(10) M-1 at 2 degrees C) has been determined at 1.85 A. Isomorphous crystals of two isoelectric forms (pI = 7.5 and 7.9) of the anti-fluorescein 4-4-20 Fab, an IgG2A [Gibson et al. (1988) Proteins: Struct. Funct. Genet., 3, 155-160], have been grown. Both(More)
A fluorescein-binding single-chain Fv (scFv) was chosen as a model for the study of the physicochemical parameters associated with synthetic IgG fragments. Three such scFv proteins were designed from the primary sequences of one anti-fluorescyl monoclonal antibody (Mab 4.4.20). These were constructed with varying-length interdomain peptide linkers of(More)
A procedure has been developed for the isolation and identification of mutants in the bacterial serine protease subtilisin that exhibit enhanced thermal stability. The cloned subtilisin BPN' gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was treated with bisulfite, a chemical mutagen that deaminates cytosine to uracil in single-stranded DNA. Strains containing the(More)
Single-chain Fv proteins are known to aggregate and form multimeric species. We report here that these molecules represent a new class of molecular assembly, which we have termed multivalent Fvs. Each binding site in a multivalent Fv comprises the variable light-chain (VL) domain from a single-chain Fv, and the variable heavy-chain (VH) domain from a second(More)