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Carbohydrate recognition is essential for growth, cell adhesion and signalling in all living organisms. A highly conserved carbohydrate binding module, LysM, is found in proteins from viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants and mammals. LysM modules recognize polysaccharides containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues including peptidoglycan, an essential(More)
The long-standing quest for the development of vaccines that confer protection against highly mutable viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C, and influenza has elicited numerous structural and functional studies on virus-neutralizing human antibodies. These studies have aimed at translating the knowledge acquired on broadly neutralizing antibodies to the design(More)
Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is used in the therapy of various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The mechanisms by which IVIG exerts anti-inflammatory effects are not completely understood. IVIG interacts with numerous components of the immune system including dendritic cells, macrophages, T and B cells and modulate their functions. Recent(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role both in maintaining immune tolerance and in inducing adaptive immune responses. Therefore, DCs are the most sought in inciting autoimmu-nity and its sustenance to autoimmune diseases. The emerging knowledge of the importance of DCs, DC-derived cytoki-nes, and(More)
Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic(More)
The state of higher education systems worldwide has often been described as being in crisis. A number of change factors impinge on systems such as globalization and revolution of technology connectivity through the Internet, which results in a globalization of information and easy access in anywhere .Virtual Universities exist without temporal/geographical(More)
A critical investigation into the information communication technology (ICT) architecture supporting virtual universities confirmed that service oriented architecture (SOA) is the ICT architecture supporting virtual universities. The study was motivated by the desire to have an in-depth understanding of the ICT architecture supporting virtual universities(More)