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The zebrafish embryo is an important in vivo model to study the host innate immune response towards microbial infection. In most zebrafish infectious disease models, infection is achieved by micro-injection of bacteria into the embryo. Alternatively, Edwardsiella tarda, a natural fish pathogen, has been used to treat embryos by static immersion. In this(More)
Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible is a disease that is characterized by a protracted course of recurrent pain, swelling of the cheek, and trismus. The cause of the lesion has been obscure for a long period of time. Recent research, however, pointed out that this disease is likely to be caused by overuse of the jaw musculature (chronic(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize microbial and danger signals. Their downstream signaling upon ligand binding is vital for initiation of the innate immune response. In human and mammalian models, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) is known for its central role as an adaptor(More)
Cyclobutane-type photodimers of dinucleoside monophosphates dCpdT, dTpdC and dTpdT were prepared by ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of acetophenone as photosensitizer. The cytosine-containing derivatives were found to deaminate forming uracil products. Using one- and two-dimensional NMR, the photoproducts were characterized as cis-syn and trans-syn(More)
The processing of starches with biodegradable additives has made biodegradable plastics suitable for a number of applications. Starch plastics are partially crystalline as a result of residual crystallinity and the recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin. Such crystallinity is a key determinant of the product's properties. This article describes the(More)
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