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We have generated mice homozygous for a disruption of the mdr1a (also called mdr3) gene, encoding a drug-transporting P-glycoprotein. The mice were viable and fertile and appeared phenotypically normal, but they displayed an increased sensitivity to the centrally neurotoxic pesticide ivermectin (100-fold) and to the carcinostatic drug vinblastine (3-fold).(More)
Human cells can become multidrug resistant (MDR) by an increase in the activity of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein or by other, as yet unknown mechanisms, referred to as non-P-glycoprotein mediated MDR (non-Pgp MDR). S. P. C. Cole et al. [Science (Washington DC), 258: 1650-1654, 1992] recently reported that in two cell lines non-Pgp MDR was associated with the(More)
Two types of P-glycoprotein have been found in mammals: the drug-transporting P-glycoproteins and a second type, unable to transport hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The latter is encoded by the human MDR3 (also called MDR2) and the mouse mdr2 genes, and its tissue distribution (bile canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, B cells, heart, and muscle) suggests a(More)
We have transfected a eukaryotic expression vector containing a mdr1 complementary DNA isolated from normal human liver into human BRO melanoma cells to study the drug-resistant phenotype produced by the exclusive overexpression of normal human mdr1 P-glycoprotein. The drug resistance pattern of mdr1-transfected clones includes relatively high resistance to(More)
BACKGROUND The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking. Smoking causes activation of resident cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs, which leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic factors, oxygen radicals and proteases. In the present study evidence is found for a new cellular mechanism(More)
The 'hygiene hypothesis' suggests that a lack of infections favours the development of allergic disease. Mycobacteria and helminths are important in the hygiene hypothesis as infections caused by these agents generate regulatory mechanisms that can restore the immune balance. The hygiene hypothesis may be viewed as a complex multifactorial interaction(More)
Both increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission have been suggested relative to the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy. This proposed disturbance in neurotransmitter balance, however, is based mainly on brain tissue analysis. Because the approach of whole tissue analysis is of limited value with(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is widely spread and is a major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and high-risk adults, often leading to hospitalization. RSV infection leads to obstruction and inflammation of the airways and induction of innate and acquired immune responses. Because dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in the elicitation of these(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nearly all infants by age 2 and is a leading cause of bronchiolitis. RSV may employ several mechanisms to induce immune dysregulation, including dendritic cell (DC) modulation during the immune response to RSV. METHODS AND FINDINGS Expansion of cDC and pDC by Flt3L treatment promoted an anti-viral(More)