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The variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene 221 of Trypanosoma brucei is transcribed as part of a 60 kb expression site (ES). We have identified the promoter controlling this multigene transcription unit by the use of 221 chromosome-enriched DNA libraries and VSG gene 221 expression site specific transcripts. The start of transcription was(More)
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has some hundred mini-chromosomes of 50-150 kb, which mainly consist of telomeric repeats, sub-telomeric repeats and internal 177-bp repeats. Their primary function seems to be to expand the repertoire of non-transcribed sub-telomeric variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. Here we report that two of the smaller(More)
A crucial step in transcription is the recruitment of RNA polymerase to promoters. In the transcription of human rRNA genes by RNA Polymerase I (Pol I), transcription factor SL1 has a role as the essential core promoter binding factor. Little is known about the mechanism by which Pol I is recruited. We provide evidence for an essential role for hRRN3, the(More)
In the extensive network of interdependent biochemical processes required for cell growth and division, there is mounting evidence that ribosomal DNA transcription by RNA polymerase I (pol I) not only drives cell growth via its direct role in production of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) component of the protein-synthesis machinery, but that it is also crucial in(More)
Transcription of the predominant surface antigen genes in Trypanosoma brucei is unusual in its resistance to the RNA polymerase inhibitor alpha-amanitin, a property typical for rDNA transcription in eukaryotes. Transcription of most other protein-coding genes in trypanosomes is sensitive to alpha-amanitin. To investigate whether RNA polymerase I, the(More)
One of the great mysteries of the nucleolus surrounds its disappearance during mitosis and subsequent reassembly at late mitosis. Here, the relative dynamics of nucleolar disassembly and reformation were dissected using quantitative 4D microscopy with fluorescent protein-tagged proteins in human stable cell lines. The data provide a novel insight into the(More)
Initiation of ribosomal RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I requires the promoter selectivity factor SL1, which consists of the TATA-binding protein, TBP, and three associated factors, TAFIS 110, 63, and 48. Here the in vivo and in vitro assembly of functional SL1 complexes from recombinant TAFIS and TBP are reported. Complexes containing TBP and all three(More)
African trypanosomes evade the immune response of their host by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Each coat is encoded by a separate VSG gene. Expressed genes are in a telomeric expression site (ES) and there are several sites in each trypanosome. To study the transcription control of VSG genes in Trypanosoma brucei we(More)
Promoter selectivity for all three classes of eukaryotic RNA polymerases is brought about by multimeric protein complexes containing TATA box binding protein (TBP) and specific TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Unlike class II- and III-specific TBP-TAF complexes, the corresponding murine and human class I-specific transcription initiation factor TIF-IB/SL1(More)
Transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pols) II and III and archaeal Pol requires structurally related general transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and TFB, respectively, which are essential for polymerase recruitment and initiation events. A TFIIB-like protein was not evident in the Pol I basal transcription machinery. We report that TAF1B, a subunit(More)