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Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However,(More)
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, abnormal eye movement, ataxia and mental retardation. Mutations in CEP290 mutations are responsible for the cerebello-oculo-renal subtype of JS that includes kidney cysts and retinal degeneration, two phenotypes commonly linked to ciliopathies. CEP290(More)
The orderly generation of cell types in the developing retina is thought to be regulated by changes in the competence of multipotent progenitors. Here, we show that a secreted factor, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), controls the numbers of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), as well as amacrine and photoreceptor cells, that form during development.(More)
Studies of the olfactory epithelium model system have demonstrated that production of neurons is regulated by negative feedback. Previously, we showed that a locally produced signal, the TGFβ superfamily ligand GDF11, regulates the genesis of olfactory receptor neurons by inhibiting proliferation of the immediate neuronal precursors (INPs) that give rise to(More)
Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen (Beck-Sague and Jarvis, 1993). It is normally a harmless commensal organism. However, it is a opportunistic pathogen for some immunologically weak and immunocompromised people. It is responsible for painful mucosal infections such as the vaginitis in women and oral-pharangeal thrush in AIDS patients.(More)
Radioresistance is a major cause of decreasing the efficiency of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To understand the radioresistance mechanisms in NSCLC, we focused on the radiation-induced Notch-1 signaling pathway involved in critical cell fate decisions by modulating cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the use of(More)
To assess the role of floodwater in controlling the exchanges of CO2 and CH4 from soil, floodwater and the canopy in intermittently flooded rice paddies, an intensive field campaign (IREX96) was conducted in Japan during August 1996. Eddy covariance was employed to measure fluxes of heat, water vapor and CO2. The flux-gradient method was used to determine(More)
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines involved in a number of pathological processes, including inflammatory conditions. Chemokines play a role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. Based on a burgeoning body of literature, RA was chosen as a prototype to discuss this issue. In this review, the authors give a detailed introduction to the(More)
Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, is important in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases. Chemotactic cytokines termed chemokines mediate the ingress of leukocytes, including neutrophils and monocytes into the inflamed synovium. In this review, authors discuss the role of the most important angiogenic factors(More)
Polymeric nanoparticle-based carriers are promising agents for the targeted delivery of therapeutics to the intracellular site of action. To optimize the efficacy in delivery, often the tuning of physicochemical properties (i.e., particle size, shape, surface charge, lipophilicity, etc.) is necessary, in a manner specific to each type of nanoparticle.(More)