Joon Haeng Rhee

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Many important virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria are preferentially expressed in vivo. We used the recently developed in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) to identify Vibrio vulnificus genes induced in vivo. An expression library of V. vulnificus was screened by colony blot analysis by using pooled convalescent-phase serum that had been(More)
The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a mixture of probiotics that up-regulates CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Administration of the probiotics mixture induced both T-cell and B-cell(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic estuarine bacterium that causes fatal septicaemia and necrotizing wound infections. We tested whether V. vulnificus produces signalling molecules (autoinducer 1 and/or 2) stimulating Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing system 1 and/or 2. Although there was no evidence for signalling system 1, we found that V. vulnificus produced(More)
Vibrio vulnificus causes acute cell death and a fatal septicaemia. In this study, we show that contact with host cells is a prerequisite to the acute cytotoxicity. We screened transposon mutants defective in the contact-dependent cytotoxicity. Two mutants had insertions within two open reading frames in a putative RTX toxin operon, the rtxA1 or rtxD(More)
Flagellin, the structural component of flagellar filament in various locomotive bacteria, is the ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) of host cells. TLR stimulation by various pathogen-associated molecular patterns leads to activation of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Therefore, TLR ligands are considered attractive adjuvant candidates(More)
We have examined expression of the genes on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) during growth under the physiologically well defined standard growth condition of Luria-Bertani medium with aeration. We found that the central regulator hilA and the genes under its control are expressed at the onset of stationary phase. Interestingly, the two-component(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that commonly contaminates oysters. Predisposed individuals who consume raw oysters can die within days from sepsis, and even otherwise healthy people are susceptible to serious wound infection after contact with contaminated seafood or seawater. Numerous secreted and cell-associated virulence(More)
The influenza virus, a mucosal pathogen that infects the respiratory tract, is a major global health issue. There have been attempts to mucosally administer inactivated influenza vaccines to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. However, mucosally administered inactivated influenza vaccine has low immunogenicity, which is partially due to the(More)
Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNP) carrying the house-keeping sigma subunit, sigma70 (Esigma70), is repressed by H-NS at a number of promoters including hdeABp in Escherichia coli, while initiation with RNP carrying the stationary phase sigma, sigma38 (Esigma38), is not. We investigated the molecular mechanism of selective repression by H-NS(More)
Infection with the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NAD(P)H oxidase (Nox) in host cells. In the present study, we employed mutant V. vulnificus strains to identify an essential virulence factor responsible for this ROS generation. We found that repeats-in-toxin A1 (RtxA1) expressed by V.(More)