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Many important virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria are preferentially expressed in vivo. We used the recently developed in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) to identify Vibrio vulnificus genes induced in vivo. An expression library of V. vulnificus was screened by colony blot analysis by using pooled convalescent-phase serum that had been(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic estuarine bacterium that causes fatal septicaemia and necrotizing wound infections. We tested whether V. vulnificus produces signalling molecules (autoinducer 1 and/or 2) stimulating Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing system 1 and/or 2. Although there was no evidence for signalling system 1, we found that V. vulnificus produced(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus produces cytotoxins that induce the acute death of host cells. However, the secretory mechanisms of such cytotoxins have not been extensively studied. Previously, we reported that substantial amounts of V. vulnificus cytolysin-hemolysin (VvhA) are produced in vivo during the bacterial infection in mice and that(More)
Vibrio vulnificus causes acute cell death and a fatal septicaemia. In this study, we show that contact with host cells is a prerequisite to the acute cytotoxicity. We screened transposon mutants defective in the contact-dependent cytotoxicity. Two mutants had insertions within two open reading frames in a putative RTX toxin operon, the rtxA1 or rtxD(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that commonly contaminates oysters. Predisposed individuals who consume raw oysters can die within days from sepsis, and even otherwise healthy people are susceptible to serious wound infection after contact with contaminated seafood or seawater. Numerous secreted and cell-associated virulence(More)
The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a mixture of probiotics that up-regulates CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Administration of the probiotics mixture induced both T-cell and B-cell(More)
Vibrio vulnificus causes a fulminant and frequently fatal septicemia in susceptible hosts. The present study was designed to evaluate the proinflammatory cytokine profile in V. vulnificus septicemia patients' sera and the effect of doxycycline therapy on the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor(More)
The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Primary destabilizing N-terminal residues (Nd(p)) are recognized directly by the targeting machinery. The recognition of secondary destabilizing N-terminal residues (Nd(s)) is preceded by conjugation of an Nd(p) residue to Nd(s) of a polypeptide substrate.(More)
We have examined expression of the genes on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) during growth under the physiologically well defined standard growth condition of Luria-Bertani medium with aeration. We found that the central regulator hilA and the genes under its control are expressed at the onset of stationary phase. Interestingly, the two-component(More)
Glucose repressed hemolysin production in Vibrio vulnificus. Promoter activity of the hemolysin gene, vvh, assessed with a vvh-luxCDABE transcriptional fusion, required cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in Escherichia coli. Hemolysin production in V. vulnificus increased after the addition of cAMP and was undetectable in a putative crp(More)