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Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of digital services on the Internet, from Google and Wikipedia to Facebook and YouTube. However, the value of these innovations is difficult to quantify, because consumers pay nothing to use them. We develop a new framework to measure the value of free services using the insight that even when people do not(More)
We study the propagation of digital piracy in P2P networks with two population segments: seeders, who are original suppliers of files and pirates, who copy the files. Early on, seeders are the primary supply source for pirates, while later on, pirates can also function as suppliers of the file. The mixture of these two segments enables or impedes the piracy(More)
A facile surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor based on a silver-ion-mediated amplification effect was designed for the determination of glucose concentration. In this approach, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules assembled on the surface of a gold wafer (Au wafer@4-ATP) act not only as Raman tags but also as linkage agents. Silver nanoparticles(More)
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