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Berberine (BBR) has been shown to improve several metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the effects of BBR on proinflammatory responses in macrophages are poorly understood. Here we show that BBR represses proinflammatory responses through AMPK activation in(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression, cell growth, and differentiation. Although several miRNAs have been implicated in cell growth and differentiation, it is barely understood their roles in adipocyte differentiation. In the present study, we reveal that miR-27a is involved in adipocyte differentiation by binding to the(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR)alpha and LXRbeta play important roles in fatty acid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. Although the functional roles of LXR in the liver, intestine, fat, and macrophages are well established, its role in pancreatic beta-cells has not been clearly defined. In this study, we revealed that chronic activation of LXR contributes to(More)
Ligands of the translocator protein (TSPO) elicit pleiotropic neuroprotective effects that represent emerging treatment strategies for several neurodegenerative conditions. To investigate the potential of TSPO as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the current study assessed the effects of the TSPO ligand Ro5-4864 on the development of(More)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme that regulates cellular redox potential. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophage G6PD plays an important role in the modulation of proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress. The G6PD levels in macrophages in the adipose tissue of obese animals were elevated, and G6PD mRNA levels positively(More)
We present a rare case of right circumflex retro-oesophageal aortic arch with coarctation of a high-positioned right arch. A 7-month-old boy presented with a cardiac murmur. Cardiac situs was normal and there was no evidence of an intracardiac shunt or patent ductus arteriosus. MR aortography revealed a right aortic arch that was high-positioned, tortuous(More)
In obesity, dysregulation of adipocytokines is involved in several pathological conditions including diabetes and certain cancers. As a member of the adipocytokines, adiponectin plays crucial roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been reported that the level of plasma adiponectin is reduced in several types of cancer patients. However, it(More)
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is a key transcription factor for osteogenic gene expression and osteoblast differentiation. In order to maintain bone homeostasis, the transcriptional activity of Runx2 is tightly modulated by many intra- and extra-cellular factors. Here, we reveal the mechanism by which Hairy Enhancer of Split1 (Hes1) regulates(More)
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce pancreatic β-cell dysfunction during progressive type 2 diabetes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-producing enzyme that plays a key role in cellular reduction/oxidation regulation. We have investigated whether variations in G6PD contribute to(More)
Leptin-deficient Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice exhibit elevations in plasma insulin early in development. The present study tested the hypothesis that absence of leptin during neonatal development permanently programs islets from these mice to hypersecrete insulin. Administration of leptin for 8 days to young adult Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice normalized their food intake,(More)